Having gone through a significant economic transformation since the 1980s, Turkey has now become a middle-income and largely urbanised country with a per capita of 9.6 thousand dollars at current prices in 2018. According to a long-term population projections made by TURKSTAT in 2018, Turkey has a population of 82.2 million as of 2018, which is expected to reach 86.9 million, 100.3 million, and 107.1 million people in in 2023, 2040, and 2080, respectively.
The efficiency increases driven by the employment of the population in areas with higher added value rather than agriculture have an effective role in Turkeys' growth so far as a result of rural-urban migration from the past to the present. During the economic transformation process, Turkey has transited from a low-tech structure to a medium and high tech structure with the effect of changes in the production structure and composition of exports. With a nominal GDP of $ 784.1 billion, Turkey is the 18th largest economy in the world and its economy grows by 2.6 percent in real terms in 2018.
Even if Turkey grows each year in the period between 2002 and 2018 (exclude 2009), changes of income per capita in dollars, unemployment rate fluctuations, lack of female participation in the labour market at the desired level, low share of advanced technology in the production - export composition are the matters need to be highlighted to ensure the sustainable growth of Turkey's economy. Specifically, youth unemployment rate and the fact that approximately 30% of the unemployed youth in the 15-24 age group and approximately 27% of the 25-34 age group have an advanced level of education; has been evaluated with precision and urgency for the transformation of the labour market in Turkey. Although currently Turkey has a young population, the effects of aging which will be seen in the developed European countries in near future will also apply to Turkey in the long term. According to the United Nations Population Projections, Turkey's population over the age of 65 will increase by 13 million people, while those in working age will shrink by about 400 thousand people in the period 2028-2058. So aging population is a problem for Turkey just like many other countries.
The fall in the growth achieved by urbanization in Turkey is another important issue, which should be addressed carefully. Given also the problems mentioned above such as youth unemployment and aging population, the importance of developing a new growth story in order to accelerate productivity growth within sectors, is absolute.
In order for Turkey to achieve its 2023 targets and to increase competitiveness in global markets, it is crucial to increase the share of high-tech products in production and exports. For this reason, it is important to take the necessary steps with the aim of creating a suitable ecosystem consisting of several components, from the foreseeable macroeconomic environment to the human capital with the necessary skillset. The raising of human capital in line with Turkey's needs is directly intertwined with the quality of vocational training.
According to the "Outlook of Vocational and Technical Education in Turkey" Report prepared by Ministry of National Education (MoNE) in November 2018, technical and vocational education is intended to ensure raising the skilled labour force that possess national and international vocational competences, professional ethics and professional values, an innovative, entrepreneurial, and productive character, in cooperation with social and economic sectors.
Initial vocational education and training (IVET) is VET delivered in formal education including post-secondary, usually before entering working life. Continuing vocational education and training, (CVT) is VET usually delivered after graduation from formal education and training, and may include training in the framework of active labour market measures. According to ISCED 3 (International Standard Classification of Education) levels, secondary education institutions are based on primary education and offer at least four years of education. These institutions are divided into two categories, i.e. “general secondary education" and “vocational and technical secondary education". Vocational and technical secondary education institutions are institutions that offer boarding and/or daytime education for four years after junior secondary or junior secondary religious schools. Vocational and technical secondary education institutions are Vocational and Technical Anatolian High Schools, Multi-Programme Anatolian High Schools and Vocational Education Centers.
Those who graduate from vocational and technical secondary education institutions are awarded a diploma according to the type of school they have completed based on the records in the e-School system. The Ministry of Health approves the diplomas of students who graduate from the health branches of vocational and technical high schools also. Graduation score and graduation area / branch are indicated in the diplomas. Both private and public institutions recognize secondary education diplomas nationally. The graduates of those four-year programmes of Anatolian vocational and technical secondary schools that are covered by the Vocational Education and Training Law Nr. 3308 are awarded a certificate, which grants them the authorities and powers of a mastership document and entitles them to open an independent workplace in their professions. No workplace-opening certificate is granted in the areas of health profession for which the workplace opening authority is regulated by special laws. The Independent Workplace Opening Certificate is issued by the school administration of the student through the e-School system.
As stated in Article 70/A of the Regulation on Secondary Education, which was revised in 2017; students of Vocational Education Centres are issued a Certificate of Journeymanship when they pass the journeymanship exams conducted at the end of 11th grade, provided that they have not failed in any lessons, and those journeymen who pass the mastership exams conducted at the end of the theoretical and practical training period stipulated for the relevant programme are issued a Certificate of Mastership. Those who have a mastership and workplace opening certificate and those who have the qualification which is at least equal to the mastership level in terms of the education received in areas where no mastership certificates are used will be awarded a master trainer/occupational pedagogy education completion certificate if they successfully complete the occupational pedagogy courses organised by schools and institutions. Also Article 69 of the same regulation stipulates that those who have graduated from a secondary education institution and are at the same time eligible for a certificate of mastership are awarded a vocational and technical secondary education diploma for the related field / branch if they desire. Students who do not have a secondary education institution diploma from a vocational education centre should obtain a certificate of mastership, but also pass the additional courses to be determined by the Ministry through open secondary education institutions in order to become eligible for a high school diploma. Vocational and technical secondary education diplomas of those who have a certificate of mastership are issued by the Open Upper Vocational Secondary School.
Starting from the 2013-2014 School Year, graduates of Vocational and Technical Secondary Education Schools are issued a Europass Certificate Supplement for the area/branch they have graduated from. The Europass Certificate Supplements are published on the National Reference Point website (http://urn.meb.gov.tr), which is the first reference point in Turkey for vocational training. The Europass Certificate supplements have also been updated in line with the curricula developed or revised in 2017. Also, in the context of the credit transfer system in vocational and technical education (VCTS) which has been created by taking ECVET (European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training) as a reference, students who graduate from vocational and technical secondary schools are issued a certificate showing the courses received and passed, modules, credits and vocational training they received in the enterprises.
Within the framework of the objectives of protecting, increasing and improving employment and reducing unemployment, vocational training courses are organized by ISKUR to increase the employability of unemployed people who do not have any profession registered with ISKUR, who cannot find a job in their profession or who are not sufficient in their profession, by improving their qualifications.
It is essential that vocational training courses are organised after identifying the needs of the labour market in terms of professions and number of persons in line with the annual labour force training plan, actual labour market research results and/or demands received from workplaces.
According to the Regulation on Active Labour Force Services; institutions (service providers) that can organise vocational training courses are education and teaching institutions affiliated with MoNE, universities, private education institutions, private sector workplaces, non-governmental organizations (associations, foundations, etc.) and private employment agencies.
In courses opened for professions for which a vocational qualification certificate can be issued, exams are done at the end of the course within the framework of the legislation determined by Vocational Qualification Institute (MYK). Those who succeed in the exam are given a MYK certificate.
In courses opened in the professions for which no vocational qualification certificate can be awarded, the exam is conducted by the service provider on the last day of the course. Following the exam, the MoNE or the university will issue a course completion document or certificate pursuant to the legislation.
The certificate costs of the people who pass the examinations which are conducted by the authorized examination and certification bodies in the professions listed among the hazardous and very hazardous professions and specified in the communiqués to be issued by the Ministry, and the exam and document fees are met from the Unemployment Insurance Fund, not to exceed the half of the gross minimum wage.
The regulatory framework in vocational and technical training is as follows :
• There are two placement processes in vocational and technical education: central placement and local placement.
o Central Placement is made based on the Central Exam Score in accordance with the preferences for science high schools that admit students through a central exam, the social sciences high schools, educational institutions implementing projects and the Anatolian technical programmes of vocational and technical Anatolian high schools.
o Local placements are carried out taking into consideration the type of schools, the school quotas, secondary school registration area created according to the places where the schools are located, the students' residence addresses, the readiness of the students in secondary schools, the sequence of preferences, school achievement points, attendance and absenteeism and age criteria. The placement process for the schools that admit students via local placement is carried out according to the quotas announced to the secondary education institutions determined by the Provincial and District Directorates of National Education. Students are admitted to the Anatolian vocational programs of vocational and technical Anatolian high schools by the local placement process.
• Also students who want to choose schools which have a maritime branch need to document that they are free of any disease which may be an obstacle to working at sea according to the "Education and Exam Directive for Seafarers and Harbour Pilots" published by the Ministry of Transport, Maritime and Communications. For this purpose, a Seafarer Health Report, which shows eligibility for seafarer training and profession, must be obtained from accredited official and private health entities/institutions.
• Vocational Education Centres (formerly Apprenticeship Training Centers) are included in the scope of compulsory secondary education by the Law No: 6764 on the Organization and Duties of the Ministry of National Education dated 02/12/2016 and with the Law Amending the Decree Laws and Certain Laws.
o Vocational education centres provide vocational education in 27 fields and 142 branches. In addition, students can get a high school diploma by enrolling in open education schools and passing complementary courses.
o In the 9th grade students directly select a field and branch, and the training is started by signing a contract with the enterprise. A "certificate of journeymanship" is issued at the end of 11th grade, and a "Certificate of Mastership" at the end of 12th grade.
o Vocational education centres’ students receive theoretical education for at least one day a week at school and 4 or 5 days of skill training in enterprises. Enterprises are liable for work accidents and occupational diseases that occur during their vocational training that the vocational education centre students take at their premises.
o Students placed in vocational education centres should sign a contract within 2 months from the date they are placed with the workplaces where they start their apprenticeship training. Those who do not sign the contract will be disenrolled and directed to open education institutions.
o After student signed a contract with the enterprises, the student will be paid no less than 30% of the net amount of the minimum wage. The wages that are paid are tax exempt. A state contribution of two thirds of the wage, and one third of the wage payable to vocational education centre students shall be paid to enterprises having less than 20 employees and having 20 and more employees, respectively. Insurance premiums of the vocational education centre students (occupational accident and occupational disease) are paid from the Ministry's budget during the period they continue their education.
In order to enrol in Vocational Education Centres, the following conditions must be met:
• To have completed at least junior secondary school / junior religious secondary school or to have graduated from a primary school,
• To have signed a contract with a business,
• To have obtained a health report that shows that the state of health is suitable for the profession that they wish to engage in according to Article 15 of Occupational Health and Safety Law No. 6331,
Those who meet these requirements can enrol via e-MESEM module.
Enrolment in vocational and technical education is carried out according to the Regulation on MoNE Secondary Education Institutions. In order to enrol in a secondary education institution, an individual must have completed a junior secondary school or junior religious secondary school and must not have turned the age of 18 as of the beginning of the school year.
Enrolment is carried out according to the student's information in the e-School system or equivalence certificate. In identifying the address, the address details shown in of the national address database are relied upon, and no other documents are requested from the students for enrolment. The health status of the students who will enrol in vocational and technical secondary education institutions should be suitable for learning the related profession. This situation should be documented in the process of transition to the field, if necessary, by a health / health board report according to the nature of the programme.
Students enrolled in the vocational education centre can also enrol in the Open Education High School, Open Vocational Secondary School, or Open Education Religious High School. Students enrolled in the Open Vocational Secondary School are not required to attend face-to-face courses, which they already take in the vocational education centre.
While the work and operations related to vocational and technical education were being continued under the responsibility of the Ministry of National Education in coordination with the General Directorate of Boys Technical Education, General Directorate of Girls Technical Education, General Directorate of Trade Tourism Education, General Directorate of Apprenticeship and Non-formal Education, six units responsible for vocational and technical education within MoNE were united under the roof of the Directorate General of Vocational and Technical Education by virtue of the Decree Law Nr. 652 in 2011. With the said Decree Law, the Directorate General of Apprenticeship and Non-formal Education was converted into the Directorate General of Lifelong Learning. With the Presidential Decree No.1 dated July 10, 2018 the administrative structure of the Ministry of National Education has been changed. The Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Services, the Business Council of Turkey, Vocational Qualification Institute, KOSGEB, TOBB, trade unions and employers, trades and craftsmen associations, education unions, sector representatives are the primary stakeholders of vocational and technical education. The policies related to vocational and technical education are determined in cooperation with the stakeholders of vocational and technical education. These policies are implemented via action plans and are monitored and evaluated at semi-annual intervals. For each student attending vocational and technical education schools opened in organised industrial zones under the Law on Private Education Institutions Nr. 5580, an education and training support can be made at such amount determined jointly by the Ministry and the Ministry of Finance for each school year from the budget set aside for such purpose, starting from the 2012-2013 school year, provided, however, such support shall not exceed one and a half times the cost the state incurs for one student attending a formal school, taking into account the type of school.
With the decision of the Council of Ministers, education and training support can be provided for students attending vocational and technical education schools, which are opened outside the organised industrial zones within the scope of this Law. In the 2018 - 2019 school year, 54.342 students of 124 schools including 23.357 students attending 39 private vocational and technical Anatolian high schools inside Organized Industrial Zones (OIZ) and 30.811 students attending 85 private vocational and technical Anatolian high schools outside OIZ are benefiting from government support.
In vocational and technical education; the education and training programmes relating to the areas and branches where teaching is done are prepared and updated jointly by representatives from the sector, relevant non-governmental organisations, universities and field experts and MoNE in a modular structure based on acquisition of qualifications in accordance with the labour market needs analyses and Turkish Qualification Framework prepared in line with the European Qualifications Framework, national vocational standards, national qualifications, international standards and classifications, technological and economic developments, and responses received from the practical area.
Vocational and technical education programs are developed with a view to ensuring national and international comparability in a manner to guarantee the acquisition of wide, area- and branch-specific gains by taking into consideration international standards and classifications (ISCED F, ISCO, STCW etc.). In the 2018/19 school year, education programmes have been updated and implemented in 54 fields and 199 branches in vocational and technical secondary education institutions. In vocational education centres, educational activities have been implemented in 27 fields and 142 branches since the 2017-2018 school year.
In Turkey, there are 1,642,635 students who continue their formal education in the formal vocational and technical secondary schools associated with the Directorate General of Vocational and Technical Education (DG-VTE) as of 2017-2018 School Year 1,541,599 students of which 864.591 are male (56.08%), and 677.008 (43.92%) are female, are attending Vocational and Technical Anatolian High Schools (VTAHS) , whereas 101.036 of the students are attending Vocational Education Centres (VEC).
The total number of vocational and technical secondary institutions in Turkey is 3,636, of which 2,552 (70.21%) are Vocational and Technical Anatolian High Schools (VTAHS), 762 are (20.93%) Multi-programme Anatolian High Schools (MPAHS), 322 (8.86%) are Vocational Education Centres (VEC).
Table 2 contains information on the students attending vocational education in the 2017-2018 school year. Accordingly, 56 percent of 1,541,599 students attending VTAHS are male and 44 percent are female. While VTAHS students are attending mainly the Anatolian Vocational Programmes (88 percent), 5.5 percent attend the Anatolian Technical Program and 5.8 percent attend the Anatolian High School; the remaining 5 thousandths are attending Religious High Schools.
In vocational education centres, 75.2 percent of the students receive journeymanship and 25 percent receive mastership education.
Table 2 contains information on the students attending vocational education in the 2017-2018 school year. Accordingly, the total number of teachers increased by 28.6 percent compared to the 2011-2012 school year and exceeded 145 thousand in the 2017-2018 school year. When the distribution of teachers by gender is examined, it is observed that there has been a significant change over time. While the ratio of male teachers to total teachers was 16 percentage points higher than the ratio of female teachers in 2011-2012 period, this difference gradually decreased over time and fell to 1 percentage point as of 2017-2018 school year.
The “2023 Education Vision for a Strong Future“ document, which defines the 2023 educational vision of our country, describes also the vocational and technical education vision.
Accordingly, Turkey's vision for vocational education is as follows:
In line with the 2023 objectives of our country, a system will be created, where changing the existing social perception of vocational and technical education will be aimed, vocational interests and skills of the students will be identified, children and their families will be guided accordingly, the academic course intensity will be reduced, the content of vocational courses will be updated, the educational opportunities of teachers in the field of education will be increased, the infrastructure and equipment of the schools will be rendered compatible with the rapidly changing and evolving technology, the graduates will be given priority in employment and different wage policies will be applied, the sector will be more involved in the vocational and technical education processes and the cooperation opportunities with the sector leaders will be increased, national and international sectoral cooperation protocols and education projects, which can be used as a good practice model will be implemented, and an integrated system which will enable the graduates to transit to higher education in their specific fields will be established.
While the MoNE is setting vision and objectives in relation to vocational and technical education are being set by, employment policies and objectives are set out in the National Employment Strategy Document prepared by the Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Services. There is regular and continuous cooperation between the two institutions.
Education 2023 Vision and National Employment Strategy Document have each an action plan and are monitored at regular intervals with the performance indicators established.
Over the past few years there have been some major reform undertakings involving vocational and technical education. These reform undertakings are listed below:
By virtue of the Law No: 6764 on the Organisation and Duties of the Ministry of National Education dated 09/12/2016 and with the Law Amending the Decree Laws and Certain Laws, which was published in the Official Gazette dated 09.12.2016 and Number 29913;
• Apprenticeship education has been included in 12-year compulsory education.
• With the amendment made by Law No. 6764, apprenticeship education, which was in the scope of non-formal vocational education, has been included in the scope of secondary education. An important step has been taken to meet the qualified labour force requirement of the sector by raising masters with on-the-job training. Those who are willing can become high school graduates by passing the complementary courses during the 4-year period in which mastership programs will be delivered, and if they want, they can sit for the university exam, and attend higher education.
• The state support has been provided to the enterprises that opened their doors to students for skills training and internship.
• The state pays a support equal to one third of the 30% of the minimum wage payable to students by enterprises that are obliged to conduct skills training and internship if the enterprise employees more than 20 personnel, and two-thirds of the 30% of the minimum wage if the enterprise employs 20 and less personnel.
• Additional points were introduced in the transition to associate degree programs.
• The practice of enrolling in the associate degree programmes of universities without examination has been abandoned, and instead, additional points have been introduced for those who want to attend the associate degree programs in the field they are studying. With this change, the quality of the education given in vocational high schools and schools for advanced vocational studies has been increased and the means for raising a more qualified labour force have thus been opened.
• Students attending vocational and technical secondary schools are insured against occupational accidents and occupational diseases from the start of field education until they graduate.
• Until now, only the graduates of vocational and technical education school types specified in the Law No. 3795 were given the title of technician, but with the amendment to the Law Nr. 6764, the graduates of all vocational high schools are awarded the title of technician.
• Vocational and technical education school administration commissions (VTSAC's) have been established in all provinces and districts.
o "Vocational and technical education school administration commissions", including school principals, representatives from province/district national education offices, representatives of the sector and professional organisations, universities, municipalities and other relevant public and private entities and institutions, have been established in all provinces and districts Turkey-wide in order to strengthen the school-sector cooperation in vocational and technical education, to ensure the contribution of the sector and all relevant stakeholders to the development of vocational and technical education at the local level, to facilitate the employment of graduates, to improve the skills training and internship opportunities of the students in the enterprises, to get the support of local organizations for the improvement of educational environments, to increase in-service training possibilities in the form of on-the-job training at enterprises for professional development of teachers.
Turkey is a middle-income and largely urbanised country that has undergone structural and demographic transformations during the economic development process. While the ratio of the population living in urban areas to total population was 44 percent in 1980, this ratio approached 75 percent in 2017. Apart from rapid urbanisation, the total age dependency ratio in Turkey has declined substantially after 1980s. The total age dependency ratio, which was 79.7 percent in 1980, declined to 49 percent in 2017.
When per capita GDP data are examined comparatively between the years 2004 and 2017, it is observed that the income levels of the regions are different. Even an increase was experienced in the number of provinces with relatively higher income levels from 2004 to 2017; justice in inter-provincial income distribution has not been reached the desired level of equality. The share of the agricultural sector in the economy is higher in provinces with relatively low per capita income compared to other provinces. This may be attributed to the fact that the added value created in the agricultural sector is not sufficient to increase the living standards of individuals. (see Fig.1, 2 in the report in PDF p.15-16).
In line with the world trends, the population in Turkey, too, will be aged in the next 50 years. According to United Nations projections, 50 years later, 26 million of Turkey's population will be aged 65 and over. This shows that it is critical for Turkey, a country that has the youngest population in Europe, to channel its young population to areas that can create added value and to revise the education sector, especially the vocational and technical education, in order to raise individuals who can adapt to technological developments in the world. (see Fig.3 in the report in PDF p.16).
With the displacement of about 6 million people after the Syrian crisis, which emerged in 2011, migration has become one of the most important factors that determine the socio-economic agenda of Turkey. As of January 2019, approximately 3.6 million Syrians in Turkey have been included in temporary protection. This means that the ratio of the Syrian population to the local population is about 4.5 percent. The following map shows the provinces with the highest Syrian population in Turkey. According to this, it is clear that the Syrian population is higher in Istanbul and in the southern and southeastern provinces.
Although Turkey, with its open-door policy, has set a good example for other countries hosting the refugees, this caused a very important element of pressure on Republic of Turkey in provision of public services and planning capacity. The dominant assumption among Syrians and the citizens of hosting countries during the first years of migration wave was that the Syrian crisis would end soon and the Syrian refugees hosted would be able to return to their homes so state authorities might develop a policy for integration of a large number of Syrian refugees into the socioeconomic life barely after the present situation has become clear to everyone. However, in the course of time, the crisis deepened and the number of Syrians who were displaced progressively increased, which made it clear that all countries must develop an immigration policy accordingly. Efforts were made to facilitate the lives of Syrians in Turkey through funds set up by various donor organizations in response to the crisis and through humanitarian aid and sources of income projects implemented by many national and/or international institutions/organizations. The aim of these projects was to meet basic vital needs in the first years (food aid, cash assistance, distribution of hygiene kits, psychosocial support, etc.), whereas in recent years, these projects are designed to serve the purpose of providing "source of income", such as enabling people to get a profession, increasing their rate of enrolment to schools and employing these people. (See Fig. in the report in PDF p.17).
According to the data of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the gender distribution of Syrians under temporary protection in Turkey is almost equal. Women account for 46 percent of the total Syrian population. Besides, it can be said that Syrians have high birth rates. Between December 2011 and 2017, 276,158 Syrian children were born in Turkey , which also means that the number of Syrians at school age also increased and reveals that increasing the number and quality of language and vocational training facilities for Syrians are important tools for the social integration of these people.
In addition to Syrians under temporary protection, Turkey also hosts foreigners who have applied for a residence permit and international protection. As of the end of 2018, the number of foreigners with a residence permit in Turkey is about 856,000. The number of people who have applied for international protection is about 114,000.
After completing their first and second four-year education stages, individuals can attend vocational education from the 9th grade. In this framework, they can attend apprenticeship education, or open education, or vocational secondary education institutions within the formal education system. (see Fig.5 in the report in PDF p.19).
The gross schooling rate of the general secondary education is above than the gross schooling rate in vocational and technical secondary education since 2013 - 2014 school year. An opposite situation has been occurred for the net schooling rate. Besides, it is noteworthy that the net schooling rate of the vocational and technical secondary education has been decreased over time. When we take a close look at the gender distribution, the schooling rate of females in general secondary education is higher than the rate of males, however lower in vocational secondary education. These rates indicate that those who are in the theoretical age group determined for vocational and technical secondary education are more than those in general secondary education, and when the schooling rates are taken independently of age, it is observed that those enrolled in general secondary education are higher than vocational and technical education.
(*): National Education Statistics Formal Education 2017 /'18
(**): Calculations includes the students attending Religious High Schools, Anatolian Religious High Schools, Vocational and Technical High Schools, Special Education Vocational High Schools and Private Vocational High Schools.
When the ratio of placement of vocational and technical education graduates in tertiary/higher education is examined for the year 2018, those who are successful in the Higher Education Institutions Exam and are eligible to continue their education in any higher education school, correspond to 28.5 percent of all vocational and technical education graduates. Most of them are entitled to enrol in two-year associate degree schools, while a minority were able to get a score that allowed them to be placed in four-year schools. It is remarkable that the ratio of vocational and technical education graduates who enrolled in higher education institutions had decreased by 18 percentages in 2018 compared to 2015. This situation is directly related to the decree-law no. 6764 on the Organization and Duties of the Ministry of National Education (published in the Official Gazette at the end of 2016) with other laws and other emending decree-laws, and revoking the right of vocational high school graduates enrol in higher education institutions without examination.
(*): The data were taken from the address www.osym.gov.tr on August 31, 2018. The data obtained from Student Selection and Placement Centre includes the vocational and technical secondary education institutions affiliated with the Directorate General of Private Education Institutions, and Directorate General of Special Education and Counselling Services.
Lifelong learning is one of the most fundamental elements for the progress of individuals and more generally the humanity. The white paper prepared by the European Union Commission describes Lifelong Learning as "all learning activity undertaken throughout life, with the aim of improving knowledge, skills/competences and/or qualifications for personal, social and/or professional reasons". From this point of view, lifelong learning is a concept that everyone should have equal access to, regardless of how old they are.
As technological changes bring about a change in jobs and the way of doing jobs, it has become more important for individuals to have adaptation abilities. For this reason, lifelong learning emerges as the most important tool for the acquisition of social skills, which, an individual, especially adults, must have to meet the professional and technical skills required by the new technologies and to meet the demands of the business world (or to maintain one's life without the need for another person). In this context, it is desired that individuals possess basic skills such as a good command of information and communication technologies, foreign language, financial literacy, problem solving, critical thinking, conceptual thinking, creativity, and effective communication required by the work life and daily life. Equipping individuals with these skills is possible both at work and at public education centres in all levels of formal education and in the scope of lifelong learning.
In Turkey, the concept of lifelong learning has been a part of the education system since the past and has been addressed in strategy documents or development plans. For example, the 10th Development Plan underlines that lifelong learning is one of the most important elements for Turkey's development, and includes the following statements:
From the perspective of lifelong learning, the harmony between the education system and the labour market will be enhanced through the acquisition of the skills and competencies required by the business life, the adoption of the entrepreneurship culture, and the strengthening of the school-business relationship in vocational and technical education to take into account medium and long-term sector projections.
For the development of the human resource of our country, it is essential that individuals have the basic skills required by the business life in addition to the professional skills, and the relationship between the education system and working life is strengthened. With this programme, it is aimed that individuals possess basic skills such as a good command of information and communication technologies, foreign language, financial literacy, problem solving, critical thinking, communication, leadership, career planning and job seeking as required by the business life as well as artistic and sporting skills." Activities aimed at developing lifelong learning programmes that teach the basic skills have been addressed in the programme. All major documents referred to in this framework are expected to strengthen the foundations of the Lifelong Learning System in Turkey.
The Lifelong Learning Strategy Paper of Turkey (2014-2018), a guide for lifelong activities in Turkey, was prepared in accordance with the objectives set out in the Plan. The priorities identified in the strategy paper also support vocational education and training. These priorities are as follows:
1. Creating a lifelong learning culture and awareness (LLL) in society,
2. Increasing the opportunities and delivery of LLL,
3. Enhancing access to LLL opportunities,
4. Developing a lifelong guidance and counselling system,
5. Developing a system for the recognition of prior learning,
6. Developing a LLL monitoring and evaluation system
The Lifelong Learning Strategy Paper includes 29 measure items in the scope of these six priorities and actions to address these measures. Strategy paper is being implemented within the framework of these actions.
Lifelong learning is also an important component of the National Employment Strategy (2017-2019). The political component of the said paper regarding strengthening of the education-employment relationship contains actions to encourage lifelong learning and to create open learning environments.
Within the scope of lifelong learning, which is an important component of the education system, so many courses are provided in Turkey and millions of people benefit from these courses. During 2017, 339,645 courses came into service in distance learning institution and other education institutions within the General Directorate of Lifelong Learning, and 7.034.152 trainees were enrolled in these courses. While 42.5 percent of the courses are subjected to vocational and technical, 46.8 percent of the trainees had enrolled in this type of course. In addition, it should be mentioned that women benefit from lifelong learning courses more than men do. Female trainees account for approximately 58 percent of the total number of trainees.
The incentive/support mechanisms used to increase the quality of vocational and technical education and the projects carried out with public support are as follows:
Government Support for Private Vocational High Schools;
• In the 2012-2013 school year when the incentive practice began, nine (nine) private vocational and technical Anatolian High Schools benefit from incentives in10 occupational fields.
• In order to disseminate the incentive outside the OIZ; with the Decree of the Council of Ministers dated 21/3/2016 and numbered 2016/8660, the students of the private vocational and technical education schools outside OIZ have been given education and training support since 2016-2017 academic year. In 2016-2017 academic year, 26 schools in 16 fields within OIZ and 7 schools in 18 fields outside OIZ benefited from education and training support.
In the 2018-2019 School Year, government incentives are still given in 20 fields to private vocational high schools opened in OIZ and in 26 fields for private vocational high schools opened outside OIZ. Currently, a total of 54.342 students attending in 124 schools including 23.357 students attending 39 private vocational and technical Anatolian high schools inside OIZ and 30.811 students attending 85 private vocational and technical Anatolian high schools outside OIZ, benefited from education and training support.
State Contribution to Enterprises for Skills Training and Internship;
• The state pays a support equal to one third of the 30% of the minimum wage payable to students by enterprises that are obliged to conduct skills training and internship if the enterprise employees more than 20 personnel, and two-thirds of the 30% of the minimum wage if the enterprise employs 20 and less personnel.
In the scope of the state incentives for skills training at enterprises, state support was sent to 182,939 students on a monthly basis. From February 2017, the date at which the application started, to December 2018, the state incentive was paid to enterprises for 4,207,084 students
Projects and Cooperation with Stakeholders;
• In 2017, 77 protocols were carried out with a total of 103 institutions and organisations. DG-VTE currently cooperates with 98 institutions and organisations and 88 protocols are in force. As of July 2018, cooperation protocols with 21 institutions / organisations have been completed. Negotiations are ongoing to repeat cooperation with these institutions/organisations. Twenty-two new protocols came into force between January-July 2018.
The data on the services and the number of beneficiaries provided under the scope of protocols and projects are shown in the table below.
For the first period of the Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance - IPA (2007-2017), € 509.1 million was allocated. In this context, 935 projects under 35 operations and a donor contribution supported to program, and approximately 800 thousand of our citizens have become beneficiaries of these projects. Within the scope of 35 operations carried out by 600 institutions and organisations such as National Public Agencies, Development Agencies, universities, municipalities and non-governmental organisations;
• 29 technical support projects (service purchase contract)
• 78 procurement projects (procurement contract)
• Implementation and monitoring of 828 grant projects are completed.
The results of the operations carried out in the fields of employment, education, lifelong learning and social inclusion within the scope of ’Human Resources Development Operational Program’ during the IPA-I period are as follows:
Operations in the field of education and lifelong learning are presented in the table below:
During IPA-II period, covering between 2014 and 2020, within the framework of the priorities determined in the fields of education, employment and social policy, the implementation and preparation of operations are continuing. IPA, as well as Turkey, carry out several projects in areas such as humanitarian aid, vocational training and employment for Syrians within the scope of the European Union Regional Trust Fund (Madad Fund) established in response to the Syrian crisis. The value of 71 projects carried out with the Madad Fund is approximately EUR 2.9 billion and the amount of funds already transferred to implementing institutions is 2.1 billion Euros.
With a population of 82 million people, a quarter of which are youngsters under the age of 15, Turkey remains the country with the youngest population in Europe. Like every country undergoing a transition to industrialized economic system, Turkey is going through a demographic transition, which means it reaches low levels of birth and death rates from high levels of them. Such a transformation creates a demographic window of opportunity for economic growth as it drives an increase in the working age population. First and foremost, to benefit from this demographic window of opportunity, Turkey needs to improve the quality and accessibility of the education system for all.
According to the 2017 statistics announced by TURKSTAT, 59.9 million of the population in Turkey are aged 15 and over. 88.7 percent of this population is at the working age (15 to 64 years). The labour force participation rate for the population aged 15 and over is 53 percent, whereas the unemployment rate stands at 10.9 percent. The labour force participation rate of men, i.e. 72.5 percent, is much higher than that of women. This is also true for the youth unemployment. The youth unemployment rate, which is 17.8 percent in men, is 26.1 percent in women 34 percent of women between the ages of 15 and 24 are not in education, employment and training. The percentage of those not in education, employment and training is a more serious problem for the 20-24 age group than in the 15-19 age group in both men and women. (Table 10)
If the labour market statistics are analysed according to the education level, it is seen that as the education level increases, the employment rate increases accordingly. Labour force participation and employment rates of the vocational and technical high school graduates are higher than the general high school graduates, which suggest us that transition from vocational education to professional career is easier. When the data are examined in terms of gender (male and female), it is understood that the female labour force participation rate is much lower male at every education level. For those with high school or lower education level, male labour force participation rate is 39 percentage points higher than women’s are. Among the graduates of higher education, the difference of the ratio between men and women is nearly 14 percentage points.(Table 11)
According to TURKSTAT Household Labour Force Statistics, the unregistered employment rate in Turkey is 33.7 percent in 2017, which indicates a slight increase in comparison to the rate of 2016, which is 33.49 percent. The same rate is higher than 60% in the southeastern and eastern provinces. The main factor underlying the higher unregistered employment rates than Turkey's average is the fact that the mains means of living is agricultural activity in these regions. As a matter of act, unregistered employment in Turkey is mainly shown in the agricultural sector, and stands at 88.3%. ILO (2018) shows that unregistered employment is an important issue worldwide. According to the report, when the agricultural sector is excluded, half of those in employment in the world are working unregistered. In Turkey, this rate (unregistered employment rate except the agricultural sector) is only 22 percent.
Apart from the problems indicated by basic labour force statistics such as high youth unemployment rate, low level of female labour force participation rate, the "skills mismatch" and "high refugee flows" are important problems for the Turkish labour market, and will be addressed in detail in the following sections.
While the demand for skills (quality) in the labour markets increases constantly, the supply for skills and demand for skills does not increase at the same speed, which in general leads to skills mismatch, a situation where people are employed in jobs requiring higher or lower training or skills than they have, and employers have difficulty in finding qualified employees or people with outdated skillsets remain unemployed.
According to the findings of experimental research conducted by the European Commission assesses the skills mismatch in Europe, in 2017, Turkey was considered one of the countries where the vertical skills mismatch rate is high, which shortly means working in jobs that require less skill level than education level. Horizontal skill mismatch has a different appearance than others. Turkey, accordingly to the data of the age groups of between the age 15 - 34 and 25 - 34 years, horizontal skill mismatch in both age groups, is close to the EU-28 average. Unlike the high quality of vertical skill mismatch, horizontal skill mismatch represents the proportion of those who do not work in the field of their education.
The results of the Labour Market Research (IPA) 2018 conducted by ISKUR shows that 20.9 percent of the firms in Turkey have difficulties in finding employees. When the reasons for the difficulties in finding employees are examined, the prominent factors are “the lack of qualified professional skills / qualified staff", and “lack of staff with sufficient work experience”. The report also reveals that the professions in which it is hard to find employees and the professions demanded by the employers (open positions) are similar. This situation, i.e. the similarity of the open job positions and the professions of the unemployed people registered with ISKUR, indicates that a skill mismatch exists regarding these professions.
Taking into consideration the reasons for the difficulty to find employees, vocational education and training is a very important tool for eliminating the skill mismatch in the labour market; however, further work is required to close this gap. In addition, it is evident that on-site learning/training for the students attending vocational high schools are of vital importance in terms of transferring the theoretical knowledge learned in the school to the practice, but there is a need for continuous development of the current on-site training /internship programs. A vocational training system that will enable the theoretical and practical knowledge to be learned together will have an important role in overcoming the problem of skill mismatch in the labour market. Furthermore, İŞKUR's on-the-job training programs are an important tool for eliminating the said skill mismatch.
Currently, the Republic of Turkey has followed an "open door" policy until 2016 for the Syrian citizens in the temporary protection status in our country. After the outbreak of civil conflict in March 2011, a large number of citizens of the Syrian Arab Republic (Syria) arrived in Turkey to find international protection to citizens of Turkey. With the impact of the intense migration flows that took place particularly during the implementation of the "open door" policy, Turkey is ranked the first worldwide in terms of the number of Syrian guests. According to the data of the Ministry of Interior General Directorate of Migration Administration, Syrians under temporary protection (SuTP) in Turkey are 3.6 million as of January 10, 2019 This number corresponds to 4.5 percent of the local population in Turkey.
SuTP individuals who are in unregistered employment, poses significant problems for the Turkish labour market.
With the influence of the migration flows to Turkey started in 2011 after the civil war in Syria, The Regulation on Work Permits for Aliens under Temporary Protection was adopted on January 11, 2016 and uncertainty is eliminated for employers who want to employ Syrians.
Despite the regulation mentioned in the above clause, the problem of unregistered employment of SuTPs has not been fully solved yet. This is mainly because companies are cost-oriented, but another important reason is the fact that these individuals themselves demand unregistered employment. The possible reasons why SuTPs wish to work in the informal sector are as follows:
o Continuing to benefit from social integration benefits
o Conceptually, not being familiar with formal employment, not being aware of the legal rights vested by registered employment
o Thinking that the war will end in a short time and they will return to their country
Another problem area related to Syrians' integration to Turkey's labour market is the challenges they face in finding jobs compatible with the skills they have. Not all of the Syrians registered in Turkey are people with low level of education or unskilled. There are also Syrians in Turkey who have a high education level or professional skills / are good in their own jobs. However, it is understood that these people are not always able to work in areas suitable for their skills. The reasons include, inter alia:
o Language barrier
o Legal obstacles
o Not possessing the documents that prove their skill / education
o Not knowing how to look for a job
The problem areas described in the case of Syrians may also be considered to apply to other foreign nationals, asylum seekers and migrants.
Technological developments increase the demand for tech-savvy employees. While the idea that new technologies can only be used by qualified personnel raises the demand for quality, the replacement of unqualified personnel by these technological innovations and automation processes reduces the demand for unskilled workers. According to The Future of Jobs Report 2018 of the World Economic Forum , it is expected that demand for the occupations that are developing in line with technology will increase until 2022 worldwide. Professions such as data analyst and data scientist, software and application development, e-commerce and social media expertise, are among the professions where demand will increase.
Technological transformation changes not only the professions but also the way jobs are done and the organisational structure of the work places. Therefore, the skillset that the labour force must possess also needs to change. In this framework, it is observed that more employers demand social skills such as communication skills, flexibility, and rapid adaptation to changing conditions, critical and creative thinking as well as vocational and technical skills every day.
A research note published in March 2017 by The Economic Policy Research Foundation of Turkey (TEPAV) shows how many of the profession in Turkey can be done by computers in the future. According to the calculations performed using the TURKSTAT Household Labour Force Survey 2015 data, 59 percent of the jobs currently performed in Turkey are among the jobs that can be done by computers in the future. Office staff, installers, unqualified agricultural workers, sales service providers are at high risk. This situation indicates that the developments in artificial intelligence and robotics technology will bring along a major transformation in the Turkish labour market, pointing to the need for a parallel transformation in vocational education and training.
Since technological transformation changes the demand for professions and at the same time the way of doing business due to global business networks, it needs to be emphasized that revision is necessary in terms of the quality of vocational education and training and the approach to vocational education and training in general in order to raise individuals who will adapt to this change.
Turkey is a middle-income and largely urbanised country that has undergone structural and demographic transformations during the economic development process. One of the most important source of growth for Turkish economy has so far been the increase in added value due to rural-urban migration. At this point of the growth process, Turkey is working for a new growth strategy targeting structural transformation and sectoral productivity increases. It is a prerequisite to ensure the appropriate ecosystem containing different components. One of the most fundamental components of this ecosystem is human capital with the necessary skillset. In order to raise individuals possessing this skillset, there are areas that need to be improved and / or rebuilt in the education sector in general and in vocational and technical education in particular.
In this context, the emphasis on vocational and technical education and training in the 2023 Education Vision document is very important. The 2023 Education Vision document, which attaches a strategic importance to instilling the knowledge, skills, attitude, behaviour and professional ethics required by the profession in line with their interests, talents and characters, describes the need for a structure in vocational and technical education where stakeholders who have the qualifications to accommodate the needs labour needs of the sector and are able to adapt to developing technology effectively participate in planning and decision-making processes. Hence, in line with its 2023 education vision, Turkey aims to increase the quality of vocational education and training to ensure the raising of qualified labour force for professions and areas required by the business world. The objectives for vocational and technical education and training according to 2023 Education Vision Document are as follows:
• Objective 1: To ensure that the value attached to vocational and technical training in Turkey is increased
• Objective 2: To increase guidance in and access to vocational and technical training
• Objective 3: To develop new generation curricula
• Objective 4: To improve training environments and human resources
• Objective 5: To raise professionals who are needed by business people who make investments abroad
• Objective 6: To strengthen training - employment - production relationship in vocational and technical training
• Objective 7: To raise qualified manpower needed by local and national defence industry.
The activities carried out in order to protect and increase employment, to improve the vocational qualifications of the unemployed, to reduce unemployment and to integrate individuals and groups who require special policy to the labour market are generally considered as active labour services. In this framework, Turkish Employment Agency (ISKUR) organises vocational training courses, on-the-job training programs and entrepreneurship training programs.
498,934 people benefited from courses and programs organised as of 2018. A sum of 3.006.177 people benefited from courses and programs organised in the last decade.
In accordance with articles 28 and 39 of the Active Labour Services Regulation, the curricula of the courses opened and the curricula of the trainings provided by ISKUR must be in compliance with the applicable national occupational standards, and the examinations conducted within this scope must be carried out by authorized certification bodies within the framework of the principles set forth in the Law on Vocational Qualifications Authority (VQA). In this framework, the fact that the curricula followed in vocational training services such as courses, on-the-job training programs, etc. that are offered in Turkey in the scope of ALMP are ensured by legislation to be in compliance with international vocational standards can be said to increase employability of those who benefit from these services.
The philosophy of a modular programme development process based on job and occupation analysis in vocational technical training is to ensure that the graduates (employees) of the programme are perfectly fit for the job / task. This fitness, which will be ensured by taking into account the balance of individual, labour market, social and economic reasons and teaching-learning principles, constitutes the source of the programme's value system. The basics of this understanding, which takes pragmatism and naturalism as reference can be expressed as adapting the individual to the environment through vocational education and training. As such, vocational and technical education and training can be an integral part of the education process in improving the individual. This understanding, which can be summarised as "Training for Job”, is expressed as the acquisition of qualifications by the individual that will ensure him/her to effectively perform a job / task that actually exists in the market. In parallel with this theoretical approach, DACUM (PROGEL) analysis technique has been employed to design the programme. DACUM is a business analysis technique used in the process of development of vocational and technical education programs and in the needs analysis phase.
Another tool that will ensure vocational and technical education and training to meet the skill demand in the labour market is the National Vocational Standards. The National Vocational Standards refer to a document containing the duties and procedures required for the successful execution of a profession, which is enforced by the Vocational Qualifications Authority, and is published by the Vocational Qualifications Authority.
Article 10 of the Regulation on the Preparation of National Vocational Standards and National Qualifications guarantees the adaptation of national vocational standards, which also reveal a skill demand in the labour market to the vocational and technical training programmes.
"Secondary and higher education programmes relating to vocational and technical education and training are made compatible with the relevant national vocational standards within one year by the Ministry of National Education and universities, and education and training is provided according to these programmes.”
Validation of non-formal and informal learning
Pursuant to the Ministry of National Education Directive on Procedures and Principles regarding Recognition of Prior Learning, Equivalence and Assessment Procedures of directives, in particular the article dealing with assessment of documents showing the previous learning (Article 12).
Evaluation of the documents received from abroad is carried out along with the notarized Turkish translation by a certified/sworn translator of the original document authenticated by the consulate of that country in Turkey or the consulate of the Republic of Turkey in the country of origin. Pursuant to this article, a breakdown of the social security premiums is not required.
In the case of tasks and procedures to be carried out in accordance with the same directive, particularly the article dealing with the recognition of prior learning and the principles of equivalence (Article 5), the learning outcomes acquired by the individual through formal/ non-formal education or through informal learning are evaluated in accessing the journeyman and mastership documents. Recognition and validation of prior learning are ensured by measurements and assessments that will be carried out based on national vocational standards, framework programmes of the related field / branch as well as the learning outcomes that are expected to be acquired.
As of 31.12.2018, 112.131 students are actively undergoing Apprenticeship and Mastership education. As of 05.11.2018, 147,695 people have been enrolled in vocational training centers within the scope of Recognition and Validation of Prior Learning, but 96.795 people have taken the exams and received a certificate.
VET programmes and skills recognition services are provided to migrants and refugees so that they can integrate into the labour market. In this framework, efforts are used to help Syrians under Temporary Protection and foreign students of other nationalities access VET by virtue of legal arrangements introduced after 2011.
The recognition/equivalence procedures of Foreign Students under Temporary Protection are carried out by the commission(s) in charge of improving access to vocational education and training by Syrians Under Temporary Protection" which have been established within provincial/county national education directorates pursuant to the letter entitled "Enrolment of Syrians Under Temporary Protection in Vocational Education and Training" dated 10.08.2016, number: 8542490 which has been sent to Governor's Offices by the Directorate General of Vocational and Technical Education.
The commissions convene under the chairmanship of the deputy director / branch manager in charge of vocational education and training in the Provincial Directorate of National Education. The Commission members are:
• Principal / deputy principal of a vocational and technical secondary school / institution,
• Coordinating deputy principal appointed by the school management for the conduct of vocational training activities in enterprises,
• Counsellor (preferably speaking Arabic or English),
• Teacher from the research and development (R & D) unit,
• Representative from the chamber of artisans and craftsmen
• Representative from the chamber of industry and commerce
• Representative from ISKUR
In order to increase the awareness of students / parents about the importance of vocational and technical education and training, and encouraging Syrians under temporary protection to participate in vocational and technical training, the relevant units of MoNE carry out the following activities:
• Brochures and posters explaining the place and importance of vocational and technical secondary education in the education system are handed out to promote the vocational and technical education system with a holistic perspective.
• Cooperation is made with the sector in determining the vocational areas to which the students will be directed.
• Syrian families under temporary protection who live inside and outside refugee camps are visited with a view to raising awareness on vocational and technical education and training.
• Activities are carried out to plan compensatory education for students who were late to start the education and training life, to organise Turkish Level A1 and A2 Programmes for those who do not speak Turkish or to cause them to sit for the "Literacy Stage 1 Placement Exam".
• Efforts are also carried out to determine the Syrians under temporary protection who are working in any job and cause them to enrol in Vocational Training Center programmes.
• Also complementary education programmes are initiated to help those students, who could not complete their education due to absence of an area in the Open Upper Vocational Secondary School, and those students who have received education abroad, but have courses to take as shown by the recognition procedure performed, to complete their education.
Syrians who are under temporary protection are directed to areas where there are spaces. (Areas such as metal technology, installation technology and air conditioning, furniture and interior design, clothing production technology, accounting and finance, handcraft technology, textile technology, marketing and retail space, beauty and hair care services, paediatric development and education, etc.)
In addition, in the 104th Article of the Active Labor Services Regulation which regulated the procedures and principles related to active labor market programs organized by İŞKUR to ensure compliance with the objective of Turkey's labor market, as per of the paragraphs (a), (b), (c) and (ç) of the first paragraph of Article No. 30 of the Law on Foreigners and International Protection dated 4/4/2013 and numbered 6458 and numbered 5490 and dated 25/4/2006, if a foreigner have foreign identity number, residence permit, international protection applicant registration document, Identification of issues international protection applicant's identity document, the identity document of international protection status, temporary protection, or any of these substitutes and documents, only with the conditions to be found appropriate by the provincial directorate and register with the Authority, the provisions of this Regulation states that he/she will be eligible for the courses and programs (except for the Programs for Community Benefit – PCB). In accordance with this provision, persons with the statuses mentioned in this article can benefit from courses and programs other than the PCB.
There are certain arrangements in place for facilitating the transition from school to work for vocational and technical education graduates. These are:
• With the Law no. 6764, all graduates of VET are awarded the title of technician. The graduates of those four-year programmes of Anatolian vocational and technical secondary schools that are covered by the Vocational Education and Training Law Nr. 3308 are awarded a certificate, which grants them the authorities and powers of a mastership document and entitles them to open an independent workplace in their professions.
• For those students attending Vocational Education Centers are given a certificate of journeymanship if they complete 11th grade successfully in their area and branch, and a certificate of mastership if they complete 12th grade successfully.
• In employment guaranteed vocational training courses, minimum 50 percent of the trainees are employed for a period at least equal to the duration of the course, but no less than 120 days, provided that they start work within 30 days after the course exam result is announced.
• The trainees are employed in the profession in which they have been trained. In the courses organised with the private sector workplaces, the trainees must be employed in the workplace(s) affiliated to the contractor so that the employment obligations are met.
• Where on-the-job training programmes are concerned, the employer has to undertake to employ minimum 50 percent, and at the end of the programme, it must employ participants for a period no less than 60 days in cases when the programme duration is shorter than 60 days, and for a period equal to the duration of the programme in the case of other programmes.
In addition, KOSGEB signed a protocol regarding cooperation with several institutions such as ISKUR, General Directorate of Vocational and Technical Education, within the scope of Applied Entrepreneurship Education Support. Pursuant to this protocol, entrepreneurship trainings, whose content is approved by KOSGEB and which are designed for a specific target segment of the cooperative entities/institutions or the general public are organised in order to raise the awareness of potential entrepreneurs who want to expand their entrepreneurship culture and to establish their own business.
Entrepreneurship has an important role in enhancing the individual and social outcomes of education. The entrepreneur plays a pioneering and catalyst role that transforms his/her own acquisitions and those of his/her circle into benefits. The fact that one of the eight core competencies required to be acquired by individuals within the scope of lifelong learning is entrepreneurship in the decision of the European Commission in 2006 highlights the importance of vocational and technical education in this regard.
With the theoretical and practical vocational training provided in vocational and technical education schools and institutions, students are equipped with knowledge and skills for the working life. Students know that they can work as employees in a company with these skills and knowledge, and they have the entrepreneurial spirit to start up their own business. In this context, an Entrepreneurship Manual has been prepared by MoNE in order to give ideas of starting a business, to describe entrepreneurial ideas, to explain what legal procedures are needed to establish a business for individuals, and to encourage graduates.
Policies are being developed to expand entrepreneurial culture in Turkey and to raise new entrepreneurs. In this framework, entrepreneurship is supported by the programmes of various institutions and organisations, in particular MoNE, TÜBİTAK, KOSGEB, TOBB and İŞKUR. In order to help candidate entrepreneurs to acquire the knowledge and experience to prepare their own business plans for their own business ideas, applications such as practical entrepreneurship training, new entrepreneur support are offered through institutions such as Business Development Centre (ISGEM), European Union Business Development Centres (ABIGEM), etc.
Within the scope of the Practical Entrepreneurship Education Support given by KOSGEB, a protocol is signed on educational cooperation with secondary and higher education institutions. The cooperating secondary and higher education institutions under this protocol provide the opportunity to benefit from the Entrepreneurship Support Programme and Entrepreneurship Development Support Programme for the students who participate in the entrepreneurship courses that have been presented to KOSGEB. While the entrepreneurs who want to start their own business and who make an official opening after the training are supported by a non-refundable support up to TL 50,000 and a refundable support up to TL 100,000 under the Entrepreneurship Support Programme, which was closed on 31.12.2018, the New Entrepreneur Programme under the Entrepreneurship Development Support Programme which has been introduced on 01.01.2019 offers a grant up to TL 370,000 and also a loan interest support.
Entrepreneurship Education Programmes are organised for the purpose of protecting, increasing, improving employment and reducing unemployment, helping those registered to İŞKUR to establish and develop their own businesses and helping them apply for KOSGEB New Entrepreneur Support. The objective of this programme is to provide candidate entrepreneurs with the necessary knowledge and experience to prepare and apply a business plan for their business ideas. Through its Entrepreneurship Education Programme, ISKUR provides training to all those who wish to start or develop their own business and learn how to develop a business idea, how to conduct a market research, and how to prepare a marketing, production, management, financial plan and business plan. Anyone who successfully completes the programme at the end of this education is entitled to receive a certificate of participation, which allows him/her to apply for KOSGEB's New Entrepreneur Support.
In 2018, a total of 81,183 people including 40,806 men and 40,377 women benefited from the Entrepreneurship Training Programs organised by İŞKUR. A total of 401,781 people benefited from entrepreneurship training programs organised in the last 10 years.
In Turkey, one of the most important problems before participation in vocational and technical education is most probably that both parents and the individuals who are beneficiaries of the education system have the perception that vocational education cannot offer opportunities for (relatively) high living standards. According to the micro data of TURKSTAT Household Labour Force Survey 2017, graduates of master's and doctoral programmes are earning a monthly average of TL -5,237,5, whereas graduates of 2-3-4-year faculties, graduates of vocational high schools, and graduates of general high schools are earning TL -3,035.0, TL1,943.6, and TL 1,999.0, respectively. Therefore, it is observed that the average income increases as the level of education increases.
In addition, the fact that vocational high schools are preferred by students with low academic achievement also negatively affects both the employability of vocational high school graduates and the preference of vocational high schools by students with a high level of academic performance and students with interests and skills for specific occupations. However, this is also closely related to social perception.
From this perspective, through the realization of a series of awareness-enhancing activities in order to increase participation in vocational education, it is primarily important to make vocational education more attractive and to rebrand.
However, there is no data available showing that vocational education cannot be utilised due to spatial insufficiencies or exclusionary policies in Turkey.
People who have difficulties in accessing the labour force and employment, and thus need to be protected and supported, such as women, youth people, people with disabilities, long-term unemployed, convicts, ex-convicts, people who migrated due to security reasons, children of nomadic families, are groups that require a special policy. It is of utmost importance to design a specific perspective that promotes the culture of living together with groups that require a special policy, and to ensure its effectiveness in our education system. After the necessary definitions are made nationwide, the priorities of the vocational education system are to improve the opportunities of inclusive education.
The ratio of mainstreaming students attending formal vocational and technical secondary schools / institutions to the mainstreaming students attending formal secondary schools/institutions in the 2017-2018 school year is 90 percent in rural areas and 80 percent in urban areas. This ratio is 80.2 Turkey-wide.
In the scope of the Special Education Services Regulation of MoNE, individuals in need of special education can receive education in the same environment and classroom together with their peers in formal vocational and technical education institutions. An Individualized Education Programme (IEP) is prepared for these students. In schools where full-time mainstreaming / integration education is provided, appropriate environment arrangements are made for students in need of special education, and a support education room is created. Students' achievements are evaluated according to their IEPs. In all measurement and assessment processes, necessary measures are taken by making arrangements in terms of time, environment, methods, devices and materials in accordance with the type of insufficiency, developmental characteristics and educational performances of the students.
Students, who cannot continue their education in the secondary education by means of mainstreaming, such as students with hearing impaired or orthopedically impaired, can continue their education in special vocational high schools. In these schools, the Anatolian vocational programs, which are followed by the students who have the same kind and level of education and who are not inadequate, are applied. The graduates of these schools are received a diploma, same as the diploma for students who graduate from general vocational and technical education schools.
Individuals in need of special education/training who is not able to follow the general education program at secondary level continue their education in special education vocational schools where special education programs are applied. Special education vocational schools where vocational skills are gained for students with mild mental disability / autism, there are 2 occupational areas and 4 branch programs within the scope of the Job Education and Professional Ethics Course Curriculum, which is taught, in special vocational schools where visually impaired students attend and provide with 18 occupational areas and 27 branches in the Business Education and Professional Ethics Course Curriculum. In addition, special education classes that implement special education programs in secondary education institutions providing vocational education are opened in settlements without special education schools, and these individuals are provided with access to vocational education.
In order to improve the quality of vocational training services offered to individuals in need of special education, various cooperation activities are carried out by MoNE with other institutions and organisations. Some of the studies carried out within this scope are:
• MoNE and MUSIAD cooperate together to ensure people with disabilities integrated with the society; the organisations, foundations and companies operating in MUSIAD will provide internship opportunities for these individuals in order to help them to achieve their economic freedom by maintaining their lives on their own.
• By the Ministry of National Education and Turkey Business Association (İSKUR) cooperation, studies are being conducted to strengthen the professional development process for students with special educational needs and to provide these individuals more job and profession field upon completing the compulsory education. In this context, by the cooperation of MoNE and İSKUR, activities are carried out in order to determine the most appropriate employment areas for these students by providing job and vocational counselling services, to assist students in choosing the appropriate vocational fields in their schools, to conduct studies to ensure that special education students who are in their last year will work on-site in the scope of on-the-job training programs, to increase the employment level of people with disabilities by informing the labour force about the supply of labour.
• By the cooperation with MoNE and Vocational Qualifications Authority, the studies are carried out over the vocational standards and vocational qualifications for individuals with special educational needs in order to facilitate the employability of individuals in need of special education.
• ‘K1- Erasmus+ Project for Developing Teacher Competencies in the Employment of Individuals with Disabilities’ is being carried out for improving the vocational school teacher ability to communicate with the student to keep these students in education, observing innovative educational approaches, determining the needs for the vocational training, directing these students to employment, establishing a relationship with the employment market and increasing the formations of vocational teachers in the subjects of placing the student on the right profession.
In order to facilitate access to and participation in vocational education, vocational education centres have been included in the scope of compulsory education. By an amendment to the Secondary Schools Regulation of the Ministry of National Education, published in the Official Gazette dated March 26, 2017, students enrolled in a vocational education centre can also enrol in the Open Education High School, Open Upper Vocational Secondary School, or Open Education Religious High School. The age limit for admission to mastership (apprenticeship) education has been abolished and it has been considered sufficient to graduate from 8-year primary school or from a junior secondary school. Individuals over the age of 18 who have signed a contract with an enterprise can remain enrolled throughout the year. Moreover, unlike other forms of compulsory education, a student enrolled in a vocational training centre will not be dismissed from school if he or she marries.
With the Ministerial Circular Nr. 2017/16 entitled "Introduction of Vocational Education, Promotion and Guidance on Vocational Education", a campaign has been started to promote apprenticeship education and raising awareness Turkey-wide. In this connection, promotional activities are organised by vocational education centres for students and parents. A total of 1,000 pieces of 1*5 m cloth banners, 100,000 handouts, 2,500 billboards, 81 public spot CD's were prepared and distributed by the MoNE DG-VET. Two public spots were prepared for the promotion of vocational education centres. In April 2018, MoNE DG-VET distributed 10,000 banners, 1.830 billboards and 880 cloth banners to 81 Provincial Governor’s Offices.
For the purpose of enabling individuals who need special education to become self-sufficient independent members of the society, and to receive education in the same environment as their peers, by enabling them to have equal rights and opportunities like every individual; for the first time in our country, SERÇEV Barrier-Free Vocational and Technical Anatolian High School has been inaugurated starting from 2017-2018 school year in Ankara, Çankaya district. SERÇEV Barrier-Free Vocational and Technical Anatolian High School has been chosen the best project of 2018 among the projects submitted from 75 different countries in the scope of the 2018 World Cerebral Palsy Day Awards. There are 20 special education students in the school, 14 in 2 mild level classes and 6 in the moderate-severe level class. In addition, there are 60 mainstreaming students and 103 normal development students in the school.
Turkey's primary objectives in vocational education are to prepare all citizens, mainly girls and women, for the professions of the future by increasing their educational levels and qualifications, to prepare them for the economic and social life, to create the educational environment for helping them acquire a profession, and thus to ensure that they have a word to say in the country's economy and administration. In this framework, the Project 1 on Increasing the Schooling Rates of Girls (KEP‐1) and the Project 2 on Increasing School Continuation Rates Particularly for Girls (KEP‐2) were carried out. Institutions such as the Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Services, Ministry of Youth and Sports and İŞKUR also organize vocational courses for groups that need a special policy.
Turkey has developed policies on the access to vocational and technical education by vulnerable groups, which is one of the priorities of the Vocational and Technical Education Strategy Paper and Action Plan 2014-2018. In this framework, the following objectives have been set, and actions taken accordingly:
• To expand vocational programmes that prevent exclusion of groups that need a special policy from the education system; to identify professions based on interests, wishes, abilities, skills and educational status; to increase access to vocational courses, and to certify achievements
• To establish a guidance system where reports starting from pre-school education will be used in the identification of vocational qualifications of individuals in need of special education according to their disabilities, and to ensure that they get the certificates in accordance with the individualised education programmes they have taken in vocational and technical education.
• To carry out necessary studies to increase female students' access to vocational and technical education
• To increase opportunities for participation of women in labour force and acquisition of vocational qualifications
• To make arrangements that would allow those university graduates, who could not be employed or who wanted to change their jobs, to study a second branch or a minor in higher education.
According to e-formal data of the Directorate-General of Life-Long Learning (DG-LLL) for the period 01.01.2017 - 27.12.2017; a sum of 85,211 people, of which 29,325 are women, and 55,886 are men, participated in 7,312 vocational and technical education courses opened at Public Education Centres, Maturation Institutes and Open Schools for vulnerable and marginalised groups (those under supervision and surveillance, those under probation and those under protection at assistance centres, those covered by the protection boards low, the disabled, people under protection, individuals requiring special education, those staying at rehabilitation centres and hospitals, detainees and convicts, those working on the streets, etc.). The course programmes prepared in the field of Handicraft Technology have been updated and revised in terms of content and methodology according to the needs of individuals with mild to moderate severe autism, and mild to moderate mental disabilities, and 182 course programmes are pending approval and publication.
In 2018, İŞKUR opened 1,965 vocational education courses for vulnerable and marginalised groups, and 41,302 people of which 34,374 were women participated in these courses.
Taking into account the contribution of anti-unemployment efforts and employment to economic growth, a number of precautionary clauses were inserted in both the National Employment Strategy (2014-2023) and other higher policy documents in relation to the employment of vulnerable and marginalised groups, including women and youth in particular.
In compliance with such precautionary clauses, İSKUR implemented the First Step to Business project to ensure that young people at the age interval of 18-29 are permanently employed in the labour force market, and employers seeking qualified workforce are able to recruit people possessing such qualifications.
With the First Step to Business, employers are required, after the programme, to employ the participants for a period equal to the duration of the programme as is the case in the current on-the-job training programme. After the compulsory employment period, employers are expected to continue employment of such people for further twelve months. An amount corresponding to 50% of the net minimum wage payable during the compulsory employment process shall be covered from the Unemployment Insurance Fund. If employers undertake to employ such people for further twelve months after the compulsory employment process (optional employment process), 25 percent of the net minimum wage shall be met from the Unemployment Insurance Fund.
Therefore, people without professional experience or job experience will gain professional and job experience with a view to increasing their employability and reducing youth unemployment.
On the other hand, it is considered that supporting women who are more disadvantageous than other groups in terms of entry into the labour force market and remaining in employment is important to increase employment and reduce unemployment.
In this framework, İŞKUR has put into practice the project “Mother at Work”. With this project, women who participate in the professional training courses organised in the industrial sector and the on-the-job training programmes organised in the manufacturing industry are entitled to receive a benefit of TL 400 monthly throughout the course/programme for their children at between the ages 2-5.
The first component of the project was carried out with DG-LLL in coordination with DG-VET. In 2013, a research was conducted to produce the information needed for the planning and implementation of vocational education activities that will contribute to improvement of the quality of life of the groups that need a special policy in 35 provinces. In line with this research, courses were opened for groups that need a special policy in 35 pilot provinces. Within the scope of MESGEP-1 Project, as a result of the announcements and introductory activities carried out in the pilot provinces from 2013 to December 2016 a total of 19.209 people applied to courses in 35 provinces. In this context, 1,005 courses were opened and 15,643 people, 60 percent of whom were women, underwent training. Within the scope of MoNE Vocational Skills Development Project 2 (MESGEP-2), In 2017, a total of 5,500 people applied to the courses in 81 provinces. In this context, 307 courses were opened. The number of people who received and are receiving education in these courses is 5,118. 65 percent of the trainees are women.
The groups requiring a special policy, which could benefit from the courses opened and continued under MESGEP-2, are as follows:
• those who cannot continue education due to their disability,
• those who migrate for security reasons,
• women who are victims of violence,
• those who had not the opportunity to access to education,
• widows and orphans in need;
• those detained at or released from prisons, who want to have a profession,
• housewives who want to have a profession,
• other (those who have no profession, etc.)
Vocational and Technical Education Strategy Paper and Action Plan 2014-2018 aims to create a flexible and transparent vocational and technical education system with the active participation of all parties. Likewise, one of the strategies to reach the objective of increasing means of access to vocational education in the Technical Education Outlook in Turkey report prepared by MoNE is to develop flexible and permeable horizontal transition capabilities between types of schools on a programme basis, and thus, to enable students to use their acquisitions as an opportunity to acquire the skills of another profession. For this purpose, it is planned to start a minor branch programme in vocational and technical education. The action plan in this context includes the following steps:
• Workshops will be organised for the preparation of programmes that will allow the students attending Vocational and Technical Anatolian High Schools to graduate from a minor branch other than the field / branch they have been studying.
• A study will be carried out to permit taking a minor branch education in a branch that has 50% and more similarity.
• The List of Minor Branches, which can be studied with along with the graduated field / branch, will be determined.
• A revision study will be carried out on the relevant legislation.
With the transition to a modular system in the vocational education process, it is intended to provide students and teachers with flexibility. This system is considered as an important opportunity especially for lifelong learning and education of disadvantaged students. However, in the Outlook of Vocational and Technical Education in Turkey Report, recently prepared, it is stated that the efficiency expected from the modular system could not be achieved, and the purpose-need compatibility should be improved in some modules, and recognition of some modules is not sufficient. For this purpose, it is planned to re-arrange the contents of the modules in such a way that the enterprises providing services in different sectors will also contribute.
Directorate General of Lifelong Learning prepares vocational and technical course programmes to be applied in non-formal education institutions for all age groups and individuals from each group. In order to give individuals the basic skills and to improve their existing knowledge and skills levels, new programmes are prepared in line with the needs of individuals, sectors and other public institutions and the course programs that are currently applied are updated. In this context; currently, a total of 3270 courses 2584 of which are vocational and technical, 686 of which are general courses are being implemented in non-formal education institutions in 71 fields. The fact that the course programmes in the vocational and technical education system are designed in a modular manner and that measurement and assessment are performed at the end of each module allows the programmes to be implemented in a flexible manner and the individuals to complete different course modules at different times. The course programs that are currently applied were started to be updated as of 20.04.2016, the date at which the Non-formal Educational Framework Course Programme entered into force. During this update, the course programmes whose durations were long based on feedback from the field, as well as their durations and educational qualifications, were reviewed and revised.
Because qualification means being equipped with the knowledge to perform a job, having special knowledge and expertise in a job, it is considered that qualifications are structured in the learning outcomes in the vocational and technical education course programs. In addition, because the mentioned courses are carried out taking into consideration the Vocational Qualifications Institute (MYK) and the Vocational Education and Training System Strengthening Project (MEGEP) modules and in cooperation with the institutions and organisations serving the business world, it is thought that the balance between the central education programme and the programme determined with the local autonomy has been taken into account.
In Turkey, the validation of non-formal and informal learning does rather apply to achievements in the professional field. The learning achievements that the individuals acquired due to prior learning are subject to a measurement and assessment based on national qualifications published by MYK, regardless of where and how they have been acquired. Measurement, assessment and certification activities based on national qualifications are carried out by certification bodies accredited by TURKAK and authorized by the MYK. Accredited certification bodies measure and assess individuals who wish to obtain a MYK Professional Qualification Certificate with respect to the relevant qualification. Individuals who succeed in theoretical and practical exams are awarded the Vocational Qualification Certificate covered Turkey Qualifications Framework (TQF). In cases where individuals are not successful in all of the qualification units that constitute a qualification, in other words, if they are successful in some units and not in others, they are given a Certificate of Unit Achievement by the accredited bodies in respect of the units in which they succeeded. In this way, individuals have the opportunity to accumulate the units in which they are successful.
Vocational Qualification Certificates, which are İSSUED as a result of validation of non-formal and informal learning or recognition of prior learning, are considered as valid and reliable qualifications by employers, workers and other stakeholders because they are issued as a result of transparent and open processes under quality assurance. As of 07.01.2019, 187 Accredited Certification Bodies have issued Vocational Qualification Certificates of the Vocational Qualifications Institute for 483,761 people in 283 different professions.
With the Official Gazette no. 30019, dated March 26, 2017, an amendment was made to the Ministry of National Education Regulation on Secondary Education Institutions, and an article on the recognition of prior learning and the equivalence was added. This article states that the knowledge, skills and competencies acquired by the individual through formal, non-formal and/or informal learning will be validated in journeymanship and mastership training, and will be documented by means of measurement and evaluation in the standards developed for the recognition of prior learning that has not been documented. At the end of the process of recognition of prior learning, the successful candidate will be issued a certificate appropriate to his/her level. In recognition of prior learning, firstly, published national vocational standards and national qualifications are taken as reference. MoNE promulgated the Directive on Procedures and Principles regarding Recognition of Prior Learning, Equivalence and Assessment Procedures in October 2017. In the case of tasks and procedures to be carried out in accordance with the same directive, the learning outcomes acquired by the individual through formal/ non-formal education or through informal learning are evaluated in accessing the journeyman and master documents. Recognition and validation of prior learning are ensured by measurements and assessments that will be carried out based on national vocational standards, framework programmes of the related field / branch as well as the learning outcomes that are expected to be acquired.
The TQF Directive describes the duties and responsibilities of responsible institutions in our country regarding the validation of non-formal and informal learning and the mobility of learners. It is planned that the procedures and principles regarding the recognition of prior learning and ensuring quality assurance will be prepared by TQF Board until the end of 2019.
In the Regulation on Lifelong Learning Institutions published in the Official Gazette dated 11.04.2018 and No. 30388, prior learning is defined as "learning outcomes acquired by an individual through formal, lifelong learning and/or informal learning. In the first paragraph of Article 74 of the Regulation entitled recognition of prior learning, it is provided that "in the context of lifelong learning, the knowledge, skills and competencies acquired by the individual through formal, lifelong learning and/or informal learning are documented by measurement and assessment in the standards developed for the recognition of prior learning." In this context, those who successfully complete the literacy courses and vocational courses organised by lifelong learning institutions are assessed within the scope of recognition of prior learning.
In the case of vocational courses, by virtue of the regulations made under Law No. 6764 published on 9/12/2016, trainees who have successfully completed 3rd and 4th level courses organised by lifelong learning institutions are entitled to attend journeymanship or mastership skill exams to be conducted by vocational education centres in the scope of the Regulation on the Recognition Prior Learning and Equivalence dated 02.10.2017 and Nr.1557502 prepared by DG-VET in accordance with the provisions of Article 35 of Vocational Education Law Nr. 3308 Article 63/a of the MoNE Regulation on Secondary Education Institutions.
The percentage of students who exited formal education from the schools / institutions associated with DG-VET is 8.86%. The rate of male students who exited formal education is 10.44 percent and is higher than the rate of female students (6.74 percent). Excluding those enrolled in open education high school, the percentage of students who exited formal education falls to 4.01 percent. Most of the students who exited the formal education in vocational and technical education were enrolled in the open education high school.
Note: Rates written in red indicate the share of total number of students in the relevant category.
86.8 percent of 12th grade students attending schools/institutions associated with DG-VET in the 2016-2017 school year graduated from the schools/ institutions. Of the 12th grade students, 90.5 percent of the female students and 83.9 percent of the male students graduated. The graduation rates suggest that female students are more successful than male students are.
When the graduation rate of program types in DG-VET is examined, it is observed that the most successful programme types are Anatolian High School and Dual Vocational Education Centre Programmes. All of the 12th grade students in these programmes graduated. The programme with the lowest graduate rate is the Anatolian Vocational High School programme. 84.4 percent of Anatolian Vocational High School students, 95.5 percent of Anatolian Technical Programme students and 97.65 percent of Religious High School students graduated. The graduation rates in all these programmes suggest that female students are more successful than male students are.
Source: MEIS Query Module, 17.04.2018
The ratio of students who repeated the class due to failure is 3.6 percent, and the rate of students who repeated the class due to absenteeism is 6.5 percent in the 2016-2017 school year. As the level of education increases, the ratio of students who repeat the class decreases. In the 2016-2017 school year, 23 percent of 9th grade students, 8.3 percent of 10th grade students, 3.8 percent of 11th grade students and 1 percent of 12th grade students repeated class. The reason for 12th Grade students to repeat the class was failure. There are no 12th grade students who repeated the class due to absenteeism.
Students with financial difficulties can benefit from scholarships and boarding facilities in the framework of the Regulation on Boarding, Scholarship, Social Assistance and School Lodgings in Official Schools affiliated to the Ministry of National Education" which was published in the Official Gazette dated 25/11/2016 and numbered 29899. To benefit from this opportunity, boarding is subject to demand whereas scholarship is subject to the results of the Scholarship Exam for Primary and Secondary Education Institutions (IOKBS). In addition, special scholarship support is also provided to successful students who have financial difficulties in the scope of cooperation protocols executed with entities /organisations.
According to the MEIS Query Module June 2018 data, 83,375 students were accommodated in 765 lodgings of DG-VET in the 2017-2018 school year. While 9,479 students received scholarships in the 2016-2017 school year, 7,769 students received scholarships in the 2017-2018 school year.
In addition, special scholarship support is provided to successful students who have financial difficulties in the scope of cooperation protocols executed with DG-VET and various entities /organisations. In the scope of the protocol executed with the Association of Metal Industries of Turkey (MESS), 11,898 students were paid scholarships since 2015-2016 school year 302 of the 4,817 students who were given scholarships in the 2018-19 school year are students who were entitled to the achievement scholarship by MoNE, and the remaining 4,515 students are the children of MESS members who attend vocational high schools. The scholarship is TL 250 per month for students attending 10th, 11th, and 12th grades in the fields of metal industry, and TL 125 per month for students attending 10th, 11tth, and 12th grades who have chosen fields other than metal, and also for students attending the 9th grade. Applications can be submitted online through the website of MESS (www.metad.com.tr).
The activities carried out in order to protect and increase employment, to improve the vocational qualifications of the unemployed, to reduce unemployment and to integrate individuals and groups who require special policy to the labour market are generally considered as active labour services. In this framework, vocational training courses, on-the-job training programmes and entrepreneurship training programmes are organised.
Daily compulsory expenditures are paid to the participants of the courses and programmes. In addition, general health insurance, occupational accident and occupational disease insurance premiums are covered by İŞKUR. In vocational education courses, course classes are created taking into account the number of trainers is the capacity and equipment of the training venue and the characteristics of the profession covered by the course. It is essential that a class consists of a minimum of 10 and a maximum of 25 trainees.
Individuals in need of special education can continue their education in all types and levels of education through mainstreaming / integration in accordance with the Special Education Evaluation Board Report within the scope of Regulation on Special Education Services. Mainstreaming/integration practices mean education in the form of full time education with peers or part-time education in special education classes by providing the individuals in need of special education with supportive education services with a view to ensuring that they are in interaction with other individuals of every type and level and achieve their educational objectives at the highest level.
In accordance with the Regulation on Special Education Services, an Individualized Education Program (IEP) as stated in C.1.2 is prepared for the students who go through mainstreaming / integration. The IEP is a special education programme that aims to reach the objectives in line with the developmental characteristics, educational needs and performances of the individuals with special education needs and includes the supportive education services provided to these individuals. Students' achievements are evaluated according to the IEP. For the students who continue their education through full-time mainstreaming / integration at pre-school, primary and secondary education schools, a supportive education room is opened by provincial or district education directorates in accordance with the proposal of the provincial or district special education services board. The supportive education room is a setting designed to provide special education and training services to students with special needs who are continuing their education through full-time mainstreaming/integration. In addition, special education classes applying a special education programme can be opened in pre-schools, primary, junior secondary schools and vocational secondary schools. In the special education classes, which individuals with special educational needs, attend, special education programmes prepared according to the educational needs and characteristics of the students are applied through the primary or vocational and technical education programs prepared by the Ministry.
The fact that scholarship and free-of-charge boarding opportunities are provided to disadvantageous students at all levels at Official Schools of the Ministry of National Education as mentioned in C.2.2. in accordance with the Regulation on the Boarding, Scholarship, Social Assistance and School Lodgings can be regarded as a policy ensuring equality.
According to Article 42 of the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey, individuals cannot be deprived of education and training, and primary education is compulsory for all male and female citizens and is free in state schools. According to the National Education Basic Law (NEBL), every Turkish citizen has the right to attend primary education, and both genders, male and female, have equal opportunities in education. According to the principle of equality in NEBL, educational institutions are open to everyone regardless of gender, language, religion, race and disability.
In accordance with the Law on People with Disabilities (LoPD), the state should make plans to ensure that individuals with disabilities have access to education at all levels in the education system and take necessary measures to ensure that individuals with disabilities who have started formal education programmes late for different reasons can participate in education. It is the responsibility of the MoNE to provide materials such as the sign language system, braille texts, and audio books that individuals with disabilities may need. In accordance with Article 13 of the NEBL, necessary measures are taken to ensure that individuals with disabilities are able to choose a profession and receive education in that area; Vocational education programmes are developed with the cooperation of the Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Services and the Ministry of National Education.
Pursuant to the Regulation on the Education of Children of Migrant Workers, the children of migrant workers can benefit from the educational capabilities in Turkey, and the compulsory education practice applies also to the children of migrant workers. According to the Regulation, it is a duty of the National Education Directorates to ensure that the children of migrant workers are placed in schools which are equivalent to the schools they used to attend in their own countries, and which are close to the their places of residence, to open courses for the teaching of their mother tongues to the extent capabilities permit, and to take measures in order to make migrant students who do not speak Turkish learn Turkish.
According to the Turkish Civil Code Nr. 4721, parents are responsible for educating their children and ensuring their physical, mental, spiritual and social development. Parents who have children with disabilities should provide their children with "general and vocational education compatible with their skills and tendencies".
Although not yet published, the "Report of the Working Group on Increasing Quality in Vocational Education (April 2018), prepared in the scope of the 11th Development Plan (2019-2023) studies has included "access to vocational and technical education and inclusion" in the planning period perspective. Ensuring equal access to quality vocational education for everyone living in Turkey being its main goal, the plan includes the following measures:
• Refugees under temporary protection in Turkey shall be directed to vocational education in line with their skills.
• By improving professional development and employment opportunities for the educators among the refugees, environments where they can contribute to the education system in Turkey will be created.
• Teachers in official schools will be supported to work with refugee children whose mother tongue is not Turkish and many of whom had a traumatic experience, and the capacity of teachers will be increased to enable effective integration of these children into the society.
• In vocational and technical education schools, the school environment, classroom practices and the physical structure of the school will be rearranged considering social gender equality.
• Educators in vocational high schools that provide education to disadvantaged groups will be selected by taking into consideration the educational needs of the individuals in these groups.
o For example, teachers who currently work in schools providing education for hearing-impaired students but who do not know the sign language should acquire competence in this area through in-service training.
o Teachers who are newly appointed to these schools should also be selected from among those who already know the sign language.
When the employment indicators are examined according to the education level, it is observed that as the education level increases, labour force participation and employment rates increase, too. TURKSTAT Labour Force Statistics show that vocational or technical high school graduates enjoy higher labour force participation and employment rates than general high school graduates, and this applies to both women and men. According to the data, the labour force participation rate of women who graduated from a vocational and technical high school is about 10 percentage points higher than women who graduated from a general high school. In men, this difference is about 8 percent points. However, when we compare the labour force participation rates of higher education and vocational high school graduates by gender, it is observed that such difference is 8 percentage points for men, and 30 percentage points for women. Labour force participation rate of the women graduated from a vocational high school is 43.4 percent as of September 2018, and this rate is 72.3 percent for women graduated from a higher education institution.
The unemployment rate is similar for vocational or technical high school graduates and general high school graduates. Based on descriptive data, it can be argued that vocational and technical education motivates people to become more involved in the labour market compared to general high school education.
According to Labour Force Statistics of TURKSTAT, as of September 2018, 74.5 percent of the unemployed people are looking for a job in profession groups not requiring high skills (skill level 1 and 2). This rate increases to 80 percent in men, but declines to 67 percent in women.
Analysis of Household Labour Force Survey micro data shows that -74.9% of unemployed vocational high school graduates in 2017 are looking for a job in profession groups not requiring high skills (skill levels 1 and 2). Occupation groups in which jobs are sought are mainly positions in the services sector. 48.9 percent of unemployed vocational high school graduates are seeking jobs as service and salespeople (26.4 %) or employees working in office services (22.5 %). 47.8 percent of unemployed vocational high school graduates have before worked as service and sales people or employees in office services.
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of vocational and technical education, DG-VET has prepared the Report on Monitoring Vocational and Technical Secondary Education Institutions (E-Graduate) using the data obtained from the graduates and employers. According to the 2017 research report:
• 53.6% of graduates who do not work in any job after their graduation do not work for reasons attributable to education. 29.6 percent of the graduates attend a higher education institution and 24 percent are preparing for university entrance examinations. 12.3% of the graduates who stated they did not work declared that "they did not want to work", while 11.6% stated that they did not work because they could not find a job in the field/branch, which they studied.
o The high percentage of those who stated that they are attending a higher education or preparing for university entrance exams suggests that a great majority of the vocational school graduates believe that university education is required to participate in the labour market and to have good living standards.
o More than half of the graduates who work earn minimum wages or less. This situation supports the fact that the willingness of graduates to get a university education can be related to living standards. Likewise, the fact that graduates do not want to work in their fields can be associated with wages that are not at expected levels.
• Within the scope of the research, interviews were held also with the owners of business, and the participants who did not employ vocational high school graduates were asked to state the reasons for that. About one fourth of the businesses did not prefer vocational high school graduates because "they did not need any personnel with vocational education. Other answers include “Lack of professional skills (practical)” (19.2 percent), "insufficiency of professional knowledge” (12.6 percent), “insufficient skills to work independently” (11 percent),"asking for excessive fees" (10.2 percent).
While artificial intelligence and robotic developments is changing the jobs and the way of doing works, the skill demand of the business world is changing. In order to ensure that the skill supply in the labour market is aligned with the demand, there is a need for an education system that will enable the acquisition of the skillset expected by the employees. To that end, technical and social skills demanded to accommodate this need should also be covered by vocational education, and the structural changes related to skill demand should be comprehensively reflected in vocational and technical education.
The policies being implemented/planned to be implemented in order to increase the employability of vocational and technical education graduates are as follows:
• Web-based graduate monitoring system (E-graduate): With this system, it is aimed to identify the professional qualifications which students will acquire by the education given in vocational and technical secondary education institutions, and the suitability of these qualifications to the demands of the business life, the level of employers' satisfaction of the graduates, the employment status of the graduates and the expectations of the businesses from the vocational and technical education schools. With this study, which is published on the e-graduate website and carried out with graduates and employers who employ graduates, and which also enables to guide graduates to plan their careers, a monitoring and assessment report (e-graduate) is prepared every year.
• Applications aimed at increasing the demand for vocational and technical education:
o All graduates of vocational and technical education institutions are awarded the title of technician.
o Additional points are given to graduates who wish to study in their field during the exam for transition from vocational and technical secondary education to higher vocational education schools.
o According to the protocol signed with MoNE, KOSGEB offers a 50 thousand TL grant and 100 thousand TL interest-free loan to vocational education graduates who start their own business.
o In line with protocols signed with entities and institutions as well as secondary and higher education institutions in all Turkey, entrepreneurship trainings, whose content is approved by KOSGEB and which are designed for a specific target segment of the cooperative entities/institutions, students, youth, women or the general public are organised in order to raise the awareness of potential entrepreneurs who want to expand their entrepreneurship culture and to establish their own business.
o The "Procedures and Principles for Payment of Part of the Wages of the Vocational Education Students Receiving Vocational Education in Enterprises under the Vocational Education Law Nr. 3308 from the Unemployment Insurance Fund" was signed on 10.02.2017 and entered into force as of the second term of the 2016-2017 school year.
o Students who graduated from vocational education institutions will be provided with the opportunity to update themselves with the new knowledge and skills by providing them with certified training from various sources, nano-credit courses, courses accredited by the industry and academy, and similar opportunities.
o Students who graduated from vocational education institutions will be given new skills in addition to those acquired before through changes in the education programmes they have completed, taking into account the type of schools, programmes, fields and branches they have completed. Course programs will be prepared according to National Vocational Standard level 2, 3 and 4 published by MYK.
o Workshops will be developed to transform the existing in-service trainings of the sector into MoNE approved certificate programs, with a view to allowing graduates to acquire new knowledge, skills and competencies.
• In order to improve the quality in vocational education and to increase employment opportunities for graduates;
o It is very important to involve the sectors in the process and to establish cooperation. In this context, in the recent years, the number of vocational and technical high schools established in organised industrial zones has been increased with the support of the sectors, and cooperation and protocols with techno-cities and techno-parks have been enriched quantitatively and qualitatively.
o A data-based policy should be developed. Sectoral human resource requirements should be demonstrated by analysis based on data obtained from extensive research. The needs of the sectors should be taken into consideration in the selection of areas and branches to be trained within the scope of vocational training. In accordance with the results obtained from the analysis studies initiated for this purpose, the fields and branches in which vocational education will be given will be determined again, and if necessary new fields and branches will be opened and the quotas will be formed according to these data.
o Labour market needs analyses are being conducted by ISKUR and social stakeholders across the country for the purposes of identifying the professions needed in the labour market, determining the skills required for these professions, predicting the jobs expected in the following periods, the changes in the labour market, and the effects of these changes and developments on the labour force demand, and determining the measures to be taken. Also, in the scope of projects like OSANOR, METGE, MEGEP, MTEM, İKMEP, LLL, METEK - 1 etc., the labour market needs analyses which are conducted for the multidimensional planning of vocational and technical education are used in preparing and updating of the curriculum.
o Similarly, to the 36-month Social Security employer premium incentive given to the enterprises employing vocational high school graduates, if the graduates are employed in their own fields, it will be ensured that no withholdings will be made from the worker's share in social security premium for 36 months.
o Promoting Employment of Women, Youth and Those without a Professional Qualification Certificate; Started in 2011, this incentive that aims to promote employment will continue until the end of 2020. Private sector employers who employ unemployed people until 31.12.2020 will have their social security premium employer’s contribution up to the upper wage limit subject to premium covered from the Unemployment Insurance Fund. With this incentive, the scope of the incentives introduced to disadvantageous groups in Turkey has been expanded and related to vocational education. The aim is to facilitate entry to employment in Vocational Education areas and to increase periods of staying in employment. If insured employee covered by the incentive has a vocational qualification certificate, and has completed a vocational education and training school or a labour force education course organised by İSKUR, then the time period by which the employer will benefit from the incentive will be prolonged. According to the status of the employee, the entire employer’s social security contribution will be covered from the Unemployment Insurance Fund for a period of 6 to 54 months.
In Turkey, vocational guidance has long been carried out in academic programmes and higher education. However, the increase in the importance of vocational education on a global scale and the improvement of employment opportunities show that the perception of vocational education among students has started to change. Currently, guidance efforts on vocational and technical education are not yet as effective as desired; however, this is one of the areas for which diligent efforts are used to make improvements.
Vocational and technical education students are guided according to their academic achievements, but their character, talents and interests are not sufficiently taken into consideration. There is no vocational skill assessment and guidance system, which identifies vocational interests and skills of students starting from basic education, and guides students and their families accordingly, and no programme structure in which students can explore their interests and abilities. Basic education does not include elective or compulsory courses, which will assist in directing them to vocational and technical education. Awareness on vocational education did not develop due to cancellation of guidance services aimed at guiding students according to their skills and the professions they wanted in junior secondary schools and the removal of courses like Work Technical Education which measured knowledge and skills, improved finger skills and aroused interest to professions from the framework programmes in 1997, and also due to deterioration of the candidate apprentice and apprenticeship system. For that reason, guidance efforts carried out at schools in Turkey include and are planned to include informative practices about career and employment opportunities, which will increase awareness of vocational education.
Within the scope of vocational guidance services by MoNE General Directorate of Special Education and Guidance Services (DG-SPGS); education activities are carried out to help individuals recognize their expectations, interests and abilities, evaluate the labour market and themselves according to this information, to plan and make decisions about working life and learning. In this context, individual and group studies are carried out in line with the vocational guidance needs of the students. These studies are structured according to the developmental characteristics of the students attending school at all levels.
"Preference Advisory Commissions" are being formed to inform students about upper learning programs and help them to be placed in an upper learning program. The Commission consists of counsellors, teachers and managers who are qualified with respect to preferences. The table below shows the quantitative data on the preference advisory commissions established in 81 provinces in the 2016-2017 school year. A 2016-2017 Preference Advisory Guidance was prepared and sent to 81 provinces to provide information on the functioning of the commissions. Negotiation are being held with MYK and İŞKUR in order to establish the infrastructural studies for vocational education and career development for the vocational and technical schools / institutions, managers, teachers, parents and business representatives and students.
Trainings were organised about job-seeking methods, interview techniques and things to consider during interviews with employers for students who can enter the business life. In this framework, 170,034 students were trained in 3,558 groups in 2017. Through job and vocational counsellors working at University Contact Points, İŞKUR provides guidance to intern candidates in the scope of an on-the-job training programme. In addition, part-time and full-time job requests are received through these contact points and matched with appropriate jobs. In 2018, 8,252 individual interviews were held at 92 University Contact Points and group meetings were held with 17,290 students.
The 2023 Education Vision, prepared by MoNE in November 2018, aims to develop a vocational guidance system to enable students to choose professions in line with their skills, interests and abilities. Some of the action steps identified are as follows:
• A Career Guidance system will be structured and children at all levels of education will be enabled to create a career profile by recognizing themselves, to learn the ways to know about jobs and professions, to learn resources, and thereby the career development file will be linked to the student e-portfolio.
• With the help of the data presented as a result of guidance efforts, it will be ensured that each student will be guided about the career by applying scientific methods.
• A new role, task and function structure will be established for counsellors to meet the needs, which arise due to migration and similar reasons.
• Tools will be developed to measure features such as talent, interest, professional values, character, personality, decision-making, career belief, etc. taking into account the Turkish culture.
• The legislative infrastructure will be restructured taking into account the place, importance and effectiveness of Psychological Counselling and Guidance services within the education system.
• The structure of and services offered by the Guidance Research Centres will be restructured based on the functions of the centre.
• Professional development requirements of the counsellors will be supported by post-graduate education, certificate and similar trainings at national and international levels.
• Certification-based trainings will be organised in order to increase the skills of classroom teachers regarding guidance services.
• In the field of guidance and psychological counselling in schools, cooperation will be established with the Council of Higher Education in order to raise qualified specialist personnel who attach importance to the development of the practical skills of the candidates.
In Vocational and Technical Anatolian High Schools and Vocational Education Centres, which are, Vocational Education and Training (VET) schools, an "Achievement Based Modular Education Programme based on Achievements" is applied. In the learning-teaching process using modular programming, a learning environment based on individual learning and qualification development has been formed, where the content is arranged in the form of small units within itself based on specific analyses. The Achievement Based Modular Education Programme is a flexible program, which places the student in the centre, where the student is active, and which allows the transition between different programs, and can be adapted to technological developments. The program also serves as a guide for teachers. The program includes field gains, branch gains, course objectives, and module gains.
Work-based learning in VET is an important part of programmes. Work-based learning is provided by vocational education or internship practices in enterprises according to the school and programme types in VET.
• Vocational Education in Enterprises; Students of vocational and technical education schools and institutions have their skills training at enterprises, and theoretical education in vocational and technical education schools and institutions, or such education institutions established by enterprises or institutions. In this practice, the students of Anatolian vocational programme undergo 3 days of classroom education in the 12th grade, and students enrolled in vocational education centre programmes have skills training at the enterprise for 4 or 5 days starting from the 9th grade.
• Internship is the type of vocational training which lasts for 40 business days at enterprises in order to ensure that the students of Anatolian technical program improve their professional knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviours, adapt to business life, are raised in a real production and service environment, and acquaint themselves with the facilities, tools and equipment that are not available at schools.
On-the-job training programmes are implemented in order to increase the employability of these people with no professional experience by providing them with experience. Another objective of these programs is to enable employers who find difficulty to find the qualified labour force to decide correctly whether they can employ an individual or not by observing the individual they will hire in the workplace for a certain period of time and by giving them training. In this way, people who are looking for a job but cannot find a job because they do not have work experience gain work experience and employers have the opportunity to train the labour force they need. Employers with at least two employees working on on-the-job training programmes can request participants up to 30 percent of the number of employees .
Practical training aimed at developing skills in vocational education is carried out in workshops and laboratories within the schools related to the field of vocational training undertaken. In addition, schools which are not equipped with adequate equipment and laboratories can offer skill training opportunity to students by taking advantage of the capabilities of these companies within the framework of the agreements they have made with the firms operating in the relevant field. Work-based and school-based approaches are applied in a mixed manner in vocational education. Students receive part of vocational education in the school in the form of theoretical and practical trainings, and part of it in the scope of practical training in enterprises. In this context, it is ensured that the workshops and laboratories of vocational and technical education schools are equipped to perform skills training in the relevant field. However, the existing financial resources do not allow the continuous renewal of the equipment in question. For that reason, it can be said that some schools have outdated or incomplete workshop and laboratory equipment. However, for the purpose of ensuring that the number of students in vocational and technical secondary schools are at standards country-wide, and meeting the need for new schools, workshops, laboratories , application classrooms, gymnasiums, boarding facilities, application hotel, kindergarten and additional classrooms, proposals submitted by provincial directorates of national education via Governorships trough the e-investment (MEBBIS) module are evaluated by DG-VET according to the priority criteria, and those that are found to be acceptable are notified to the Presidency of Strategy Development for submission to the State Investment Programme electronically along with the justification thereof.
Individual teaching materials for each learning unit (module) of the field and branch courses in the field/branch framework curriculum implemented in vocational and technical secondary education are prepared by the Ministry of National Education and presented to the use of students, teachers, the public and the relevant sector in the electronic environment.
The factors affecting the teaching and learning environment in vocational and technical education are given below.
• Insufficiency of time and resources allocated for counselling services
• Dual education
• Intensity of academic programmes
• Inadequacy of workshops and laboratories and their equipment
• Lack of teachers in some regions
• Insufficiency of work-based learning and internship opportunities
• Insufficient physical structures
• The fact that modules are old for teaching
• Frequently-replaced managers
• Teachers who cannot update their knowledge according to technological developments
• Teachers who work in Vocational and Technical Education Schools should be volunteering to participate in the preparation of individual teaching materials.
Work-based learning designed to improve education/ teaching and learning methods; Pursuant to the amendment to the Basic Law of National Education No. 1739 by virtue of the Law No. 6764 in 2016, Vocational Education Centres were included in the compulsory formal secondary education. The inclusion of Vocational Education Centres within the scope of compulsory education has enabled to attach higher importance to work-based learning.
All training activities carried out within the scope of internship and work-based learning are a prerequisite for students to receive a qualified vocational education. The responsibilities of schools and enterprises are increased for monitoring the development of students in the internship periods. With the updated curriculum, the weight of field based courses has been increased in all vocational and technical education institutions. New enterprises and atmospheres such as techno parks, techno cities, etc. enrich internship and on-the-job training environments and options offered to students. In addition, by increasing the number of schools established in organised industrial zones, the number of students who are raised via on-the-job training is increased.
The target group of vocational and technical education is not limited to secondary education students, and it should be accessible by all individuals who wish to acquire vocational skills. For this purpose, regardless of age and living conditions, Vocational High School and Vocational Education Centres providing formal education serve to provide vocational education to all interested individuals. In order to expand access to vocational education, the conditions not exceeding 18 years of age and not being married for being eligible to enroll in Vocational Education Centers have been cancelled as of 2017. In addition, the provision of education in a modular system enables individuals to shape their education according to their interests.
Vocational education courses are organised according to the training modules prepared by the Directorate General of Lifelong Learning or universities. Vocational education courses are organised for the duration of the module, and lasts maximum for 160 actual days (1280 hours). The content of the vocational education courses consists of the subjects in the training module.
A "Vocational Education and Skills Development Cooperation Protocol" (VEDCP) was signed by ISKUR and Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey (TOBB) for the organisation of vocational trainings to include a combination of theoretical and practical trainings in cooperation with public - private sector in order to raise a labour force with the qualifications demanded by the labour market. According to the said Protocol, the theoretical education will be carried out in the education settings or workplaces determined by the Chamber / Exchange and the number of people in the classroom will not exceed 25. The practical training will be carried out at the employer's workplace with such number of trainees requested by the employer.
During the 2017-2018 School Year, the number of students per teacher in schools / institutions associated with the Directorate General of Vocational and Technical Education is 13. Considering that the number in question was 15 during the 2012-2013 school year, it is understood that the number of students per teacher has decreased over time.
The course classes in ISKUR's vocational education courses are created taking into account the number of trainers, the capacity and equipment of the training site and the characteristics of the profession, which is the subject of the course. Trainings are delivered in classrooms that meet the minimum standards required according to the profession in question. It is essential that a class consists of a minimum of 10 and a maximum of 25 trainees. The costs of the materials that are consumed during the execution of courses, programmes and projects and cannot be described as fixtures (practicing expenses) are covered by İŞKUR.
For the purpose of equipping the vocational and technical education institutions according to a certain standard throughout the country and to ensure that similar workshops have equal opportunities, standard equipment lists are being prepared for the workshops and laboratories of each vocational education area and standard architectural layouts of workshops and laboratories are being determined. These standards aim to eliminate quality differences between schools and to create equal learning opportunities for students. Moreover, the determination of the standard equipment for the field contributes to the efficient use of financial resources by ensuring the procurement of the right equipment for vocational gains.
In addition, private sector companies and other stakeholders benefiting from vocational and technical education also support vocational and technical education institutions.
Moreover, for the purpose of improving the educational environment of schools and ensuring the qualifications required by the curricula, the Standard Architectural Settlement Plans and Needs Analysis of the Information Technologies, Office Management, Machinery Technology, Metal Technology, Accounting and Finance, Renewable Energy Technologies, Radio-Television, Journalism, Marketing and Retail, Food and Beverage Services, Machinery Technology, Electricity - Electronic Technology areas have been updated together with DG-VET and Construction and Real Estate Department.
According to the data contained in the Outlook of Vocational and Technical Education in Turkey Report prepared by MoNE in November 2018, there are ongoing improvements and projects under governmental investment in 2018 aimed at improving vocational education and physical environment. In addition, the Directorate General of Support Services has sent funds to meet the equipment needs of the schools providing thematic education. The data entries of the Vocational and Technical Anatolian High Schools into the e-Equipment Module, which was implemented to identify the existing equipment of the workshops and laboratories in the vocational and technical education schools / institutions pursuant to the Circular No: 19438045 dated 16/11/2017 and the User Manual of e-Equipment Monitoring Module were made in December, and the reports were taken in the first week of January. The process is repeated every year at the same dates.
Moreover, in 2019, the requirements planning of the schools has been started by comparing the equipment requirements entered in the system by the schools using the e-demand module and the existing equipment shown in the e-equipment monitoring module.
In the scope of Training Material Preparation Efforts by 3D Modelling Technique, which promotes permanent learning:
1.060 gains have been identified for the 10th grades in the areas of Furniture and Interior Design, Machinery Technology, Electrical-Electronics Technology, Plumbing Technology and Air Conditioning, Motor Vehicle Technology, Biomedical Equipment Technologies and Industrial Automation Technologies, Information Technology, Construction Technology, Chemical Technology, Food Technology, Textile Technology, Metal Technology, Food and Beverage Services, Accommodation and Travel Services. 782 scenarios have been written in relation to the gains identified. 332 scenarios have been submitted for joint use by the areas. The contents of electronics training included 189 animations, 13 simulations, 97 interactive applications, 62 infographics, 46 screen capture applications, and 375 video shootings. Schools where 375 video shootings will be carried out have been identified, and the materials have been delivered to the General Directorate of Innovations and Educational Technologies in order to carry out the studies.
Within the scope of the Cash For Work project conducted with the GIZ (German Agency for International Cooperation), a total of EUR 35,000 was transferred to each of the 30 pilot Public Education Centres for the purpose of developing the children's playroom and strengthening the educational infrastructures of vocational courses throughout the project.
Within the scope of the Project for Increasing Access to Turkish Language Education and Vocational Education for Syrians under Temporary Protection" to be realised in cooperation with United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, a fund of EUR 187,315 will be allocated to each of the 8 pilot Public Education Centres for the purpose of developing the children's playroom and strengthening the educational infrastructures of language and vocational courses.
The objectives and strategies covered by Report on Outlook of Vocational and Technical Education in Turkey published by MoNE include the development of new generation of curricula, educational environments and human resources with a view to improving education and training settings. In the scope of these objectives, actions have been prepared, including the revision of the teaching materials according to the changes in the curricula, review of the contents of the vocational and technical secondary education fields, branches and modules, and training periods in accordance with the needs of the students and the demands of the business life, the update of the equipment standards of workshops and laboratories , architectural layout plans and needs analyses of workshops and laboratories .
Teachers are employed on a staffed and contracted basis. In addition to regular teachers, contracted teachers are employed in formal and non-formal education institutions with vacant permanent teacher positions of MoNE, primarily in regions given first-degree priority in development.
The first step in teaching profession is being a candidate teacher. Career steps are progressing as teacher, specialist teacher and head teacher after the candidate teacher step. The relevant career system is not sufficiently effective, and is anticipated to be restructured in the scope of “2023 Education Vision” policy document.
According to the statistics of Ministry of National Education, in 2017, 145,511 teachers were employed in Vocational and Technical Secondary Education. While the number of male teachers was higher than the number of female teachers in the past, the number of female teachers increased to the number of male teachers in recent years.
In vocational and technical education, while teachers are employed in schools, master trainers are employed in vocational courses. In lifelong learning institutions, if there are no staffed and contracted teachers in the courses opened, such need is remedied by assignments in which teachers are paid for additional course hours. In lifelong learning institutions, untenured master trainers are assigned to be paid for additional course hours as per article 89 of Civil Servants Law no. 657.
It is mandatory to enter Public Personnel Selection Examination (PPSE) to be employed as a teacher in public schools. Those who want to be appointed by PPSE need to get the minimum base point determined for the areas. Teacher candidates are selected from among those who at least have a bachelor's degree in higher education programs designated for the areas. Those who will be appointed as teachers need to have a satisfactory level of general knowledge and have received training on a specific field of education and pedagogical formation. Those who have not completed one of these education processes or who have not received enough credits are not appointed as teachers. However, in cases where the number of teachers remains inadequate, those without pedagogical formation, but have the required qualifications may also be appointed provided that they complete/receive pedagogical formation after the appointment. Necessary measures are taken in order for those appointed in this manner to gain pedagogical formation during the candidacy period.
In addition to regular teachers, contracted teachers are employed in formal and non-formal education institutions with vacant permanent teacher positions of MoNE, primarily in regions given first-degree priority in development. The higher education program from which the contracted teachers have graduated from should match the field based on which the assignment will be made. Except for those to be assigned to the fields in which those who have graduated from higher education programs constituting the resource for teaching do not meet the demand, candidates who have successfully completed pedagogical formation training deemed suitable by MoNE and acquired a score from PPSE which is equal to or higher than the base score specified for the fields of assignment are eligible.
Those who have acquired mastery and are responsible for the education of the students attending vocational and technical education schools and institutions, and know and apply the vocational education techniques, can be assigned as master trainers. Among those having a master certificate / a license to open a workplace and those having the minimum qualifications for being a master in areas where a master certificate is not used, those who successfully complete the work pedagogy courses are given master instructor/business pedagogy training completion certificate. The training period of the Master Trainer Course is 40 hours. The theoretical education of students who receive vocational training and supplementary education at school or at work are given by staffed teachers of the school and/or instructors who are assigned in return for a tuition fee or instructors working at the businesses. Skills training, internship and complementary training in the enterprises are carried out by instructors/master trainers. In order for a business to employ an apprentice/journeyman, the enterprise should have a master trainer with Master Trainer Certificate who will be responsible for the practical training of the apprentice/journeyman.
One of the targets in Teacher Strategy Document is "to select those most appropriate for the teaching profession among university graduates". Although the main source for admission to the teaching profession is the graduates of the faculty of education, where necessary, graduates of other faculties should also be employed as teachers, provided that they complete the programmes for teaching the relevant field prior to their employment. Not only the academic qualifications of the candidate teachers but also their personal characteristics significantly affect their performance in the teaching profession. Therefore, redesigning the procedures for selecting individuals for the teaching profession in multiple stages and with pre-designated criteria can be considered as an appropriate approach.
It is mandatory to sit for Public Personnel Selection Examination (PPSE) to be employed as a teacher in public schools. In vocational and technical education, while teachers are employed in schools, master trainers are employed in vocational courses. In lifelong learning institutions, if there are no regular and contracted teachers in the courses opened, such need is remedied by assignments in which teachers are paid for additional course hours. In lifelong learning institutions, untenured master trainers are assigned to be paid for additional course hours as per article 89 of Civil Servants Law no. 657.
In-service trainings are organised every year by MoNE, Directorate General of Teacher Raising and Development. These trainings are intend to improve the field knowledge and field education skills of the teachers working in the Vocational and Technical Education area. In-service trainings are revised by the General Directorate of Vocational Education and Training every year, proposed to the Directorate General of Teacher Raising and development, and opened accordingly. Trainings are given by specialist academics or teachers.
During the In-service Training Planning to be conducted in 2018 and to be conducted in 2019 by the Directorate General of Vocational and Technical Education, some activities were planned as online trainings.
The activities planned for workshop and laboratory teachers, especially include production activities to be performed in real work environment pursuant to 2023 Vision Document Vocational Training Strategy Document and the cooperation protocols with relevant sectors. In this context, 147 in-service training sessions were organised in 2017 and 8,250 administrators and teachers were given in-service training. 105 in-service training sessions were organised in 2018 and 3,448 administrators and teachers were given in-service training. The number of activities performed within the scope of on-the-job training is 48. For 2019, 48 on-the-job training activities are planned to reach 1500 teachers.
In order to develop foreign language proficiency of vocational teachers, in 2017, 42 workshop and laboratory teachers from 9 fields (Information Technologies, Biomedical Equipment Technologies, Navigation, Electrical and Electronics Technology, Industrial Automation Technologies, Motor Vehicles Technology, Rail Systems Technology, Food and Beverage Services) were sent to a 12-week foreign language course (01 October – 23 December 2017) in London, Capital of England, for them to improve their fluency in English. In 2018, 21 areas were announced, and 51 candidates were examined and interviewed as a spoken exam. According to the results of the oral exam, 35 candidates (teachers from 12 different fields) were successful and granted the right to be sent to language education abroad.
“2023 Education Vision Paper” published by MoNE sets out the targets of enacting a Law on Teaching Profession, improving the wages of paid teachers, shortening the periods of duty of contracted teachers taking into account the assignment, working conditions, promotions, personal rights and similar aspects related to teachers.
In the scope of “2023 Education Vision” policy paper, horizontal and vertical career specialty areas of teachers and administrators are expected to be restructured.
The existing teacher career system will be restructured based on horizontal and vertical career steps. In the new model envisaged, it is aimed to open vocational specialty programmes in post-graduate levels regarding the career steps of teachers.
As set out in “2023 Education Vision” published by MoNE, one-on-one, formal and distance training collaborations will be realised with universities and NGOs in order to support professional development of teachers. In addition, some in-service training activities for teachers and administrators will be separated from the participation documentation application, and converted to accredited certificate programmes through universities.
One of the most important activities carried out in recent years by MoNE in order to contribute to the personal and professional development of teachers is the development of the School Based Professional Development Model (SBVD). SBVD is defined as an integrated group of processes that support the development of professional knowledge, skills, values and attitudes of teachers in and out of the school and support the teacher in creating effective learning and teaching environments. SBVD provides significant contribution to teachers’ cooperation, focusing on learning basis, sharing ideas and taking successful applications as examples, hence to their professional development. Thus, teachers are expected to have increased self-confidence and self-esteem and feel more valued and supported in their studies and development. SBVD enriches and enhances professional competences of teachers and hence supports the school culture, which includes the school's knowledge, experience, expertise and a democratic style.
Pursuant to Civil Servants Law no. 657, Fundamental Law on National Education no.1739 and Law no. 652 on Organisation and Duties of Ministry of National Education, every year, an In-service Training Plan is developed and approved by MoNE for implementation by obtaining opinions on required fields of teachers of workshop and laboratory courses and teachers of general knowledge courses serving in schools/institutions of the Directorate General for Vocational and Technical Education in order to improve the knowledge and skills of MoNE personnel, increase their efficiency, ensure their adaptation to scientific and technological developments and prepare them for higher roles.
In-service training activities are carried out in cooperation with the central and provincial organisations of MoNE, universities, non-governmental organisations, public and private institutions and organisations in accordance with the Regulation and Implementation Principles. Staff Directorate General and Directorate General for Teacher Training and Development are authorized to sign on behalf of the Minister approvals of opening, postponement, cancellation and change of existing in-service training activities in In-service training Plan or of additional in-service training activities to be planned in line with the needs, protocols related to the activities to be conducted with universities, non-governmental organisations and public/private institutions/organisations, approvals of expenditure pertaining to in-service training activities, including external loans.
A staff member can file an application for maximum 5 activities through Ministry of Education Information Systems (MEBBIS) during the year. They can participate in maximum one in-service training activity annually, except for activities with a project, a series of activities or activities they are obliged to attend due to change of role. For each activity, during the approval process, the approval authority examines and decides whether or not the applicant meets the criteria for participating in the activity. Priority is given to those who have never participated in an in-service training activity, and those meeting the criteria such as being in the teaching profession for minimum 3 years, meeting the criteria for target population that matches the activity and not having received training for the last 5 years, etc. are given priority.
Under the protocol signed between MoNE and UNICEF, a "Seminar on Statutory Practices" was conducted for the administrators of vocational education centres. Children's Rights and Business Principles Seminars were organised in 10 pilot provinces (Ankara-Konya, Istanbul-Kocaeli, Izmir-Bursa, Kahramanmaras-Kayseri, Gaziantep-Adana). In this context, 8 activities were carried out, and 640 teachers were informed in the seminar. E-Mesem (vocational education centres program system) automation system was launched in order to carry out things and processes of students of vocational education centres. In this context, a workshop was organised for 120 managers/chief deputy managers/deputy managers of vocational education centres to evaluate the changes made under the respective Law and develop the e-Mesem automation system. Before such workshops were organised, the number of foreign students enrolled in the Vocational Education Centres was 500, and as a result of these workshops, that number increased to about 1,203. A training kit was distributed by UNICEF to Foreign students and the same number of students who are Turkish citizens enrolled in Vocational Education Centres.
MoNE's Outlook of Vocational and Technical Education in Turkey include planning the actions of preparing protocols and projects to enhance professional competences of the teachers and of organizing mobility programs abroad to enable professional development in real production environments of teachers in schools of DG-VET with the target of improving education environments and human resources (see D.2.6).
One of the most important activities carried out in recent years by MoNE in order to contribute to the personal and professional development of teachers is the development of the School Based Professional Development Model (SBVD).
According to the data from the research which is the basis of the E-Graduate Report mentioned also in the previous sections;
• 69.15 percent of the graduates stated that they were very satisfied and quite satisfied with the education and training provided in the school.
• Considering the contribution made by the education they had in the vocational high school to their personal development, 41.60 percent of the graduates stated that it was quite contributive, 29.18 percent of them stated that it was very contributive, while 21.20 percent of them stated that it was slightly contributive.
• Considering the contribution made by the education they had in the vocational high school to their professional development, 38.57 percent of the graduates stated that it was quite contributive, 30.90 percent of them stated that it was very contributive, while 20.79 percent of them stated that it was slightly contributive.
• 74.74 percent of the business executives stated that they were very satisfied and quite satisfied with the vocational qualifications the graduates gained in the school. As for the graduates, 76.29 percent of them stated that they found the vocational qualification they gained in the school very sufficient and quite sufficient for the jobs they had done/did currently.
As mentioned earlier in section C, TURKSTAT Labour Market Statistics show that as the education level has increased, the employment rate has also increased as of September 2018. In 2018, the employment rate of the high school graduates was 48 percent, while the employment rate of the vocational or technical high school graduates was 57.9 percent. On the other hand, the employment rate of the higher education graduates was 68.8 percent.
Regarding the individuals (aged 15-34) who do not take part in education although they successfully completed their studies in at least one school; considering the period of more than three months to start employment for them following their education completed/left unfinished, it is observed that about two-thirds of those who waited for more than 3 years have an education level below high school.
The quality assurance system was established in the vocational and technical education in order to contribute to the training of the qualified labour force needed by the business world in the vocational and technical education. The components of the quality assurance system include quality assurance guides, self-evaluation, external evaluation, feedback, review, quality indices, and quality award. Self-assessment is actively implemented in all schools. Within the scope of the external evaluation, the quality of all schools is examined.
Under the external evaluation, the quality examinations of 513 vocational and technical education schools/institutions have been completed as of the end of 2018 by the directors and teachers who attended the vocational and technical education quality investigator-training course organised by the MoNE Directorate General for Vocational and Technical Education. All schools/institutions for which self-assessment and external evaluation are carried out are provided with feedback in order to improve/develop the basic and support processes related to the education and training. In the scope of review activities, external evaluation activities and assessors are evaluated at certain intervals in order to increase their effectiveness and reliability.
For the purpose of identifying the relationship between the values obtained as a result of holistic evaluation of the quality assurance system and sharing the results with the public, quality indices and a quality map will be created. As a result of the evaluations made in the scope of the quality assurance system applications, successful educational institutions will be given an award, and an incentive mechanism will be in place. In addition, to describe procedures and principles for achieving quality assurance in vocational and technical educational institutions, and to ensure continuity of the efforts, studies are carried out for creating the necessary legal infrastructure.
The Directorate defines the procedures and principles to ensure the quality assurance in the vocational and technical education for Vocational and Technical Education. Quality management means all of the processes and methods analysing and following the areas below in vocational and technical education (VET) institutions.
• Services provided
• Processes followed
• Facilities checked
An effective quality management must determine and check that the standards are met and/or how the quality service will be provided, and must provide this service.
In order for the quality to be ensured, there are four important elements in which the vocational and technical education must effectively follow the services or processes.
• Persons taking charge in the realization of quality services or processes (trainers, directors, etc.) must be qualified. These persons know what is expected from them in order to satisfy the requirements of students and the sector.
• Personnel's places of work must be suitable for the education programmes provided. VET institutions must have workshops or laboratories. When they are not sufficient, there must be access to workshops and laboratories of other organisations and institutions. In addition, such workshops and laboratories must be safe and healthy for students to work.
• Tools, equipment and materials used by personnel must be provided at a minimum level. Resources must be compatible with the programmes provided by VET institutions and capable of enabling the acquisition of the qualifications. In addition, resources are required to be suitable for the number of students in all programmes.
• Decisions made by persons for measurement-evaluation must be correct. Decisions as to whether a student has the necessary practice skill level or whether a student passes written exams are very important decisions and these kinds of decisions must be the decisions correctly made.
The Turkish Qualifications Framework (TQF) was ordered to include all qualifications, which were gained through education and training programmes and other means of learning and the quality assurance of which was ensured, in TQF and to publish the regulation to ensure the quality assurance of the qualifications to be included in TQF on the Official Gazette. Accordingly, the Regulation to Ensure the Quality Assurance of Qualifications to Be Included in TQF (Quality Assurance Regulation/Regulation, in short) was prepared by TQF Board and took its final form with the opinions and suggestions of the organisations and institutions represented at TQF Board. Approved with the Resolution dated 25 January 2018 and numbered 2018/01 of TQF Coordination Board at which the Ministry of National Education, the Higher Education Council and the Vocational Qualification Institute were represented, the Regulation entered into force following its publication on the Official Gazette dated 25 March 2018 and numbered 30371.
The Regulation covers the arrangements regarding the provision of the quality assurance of all qualifications established as a result of the verification of formal and non-formal education and learning programmes and informal education, the determination of the quality assurance criteria, and the duties and responsibilities of the institutions in charge of the quality assurance. Establishing the quality criteria that must be satisfied by all diplomas, certificates and vocational qualification certificates designed to be in compliance with the quality assurance principles defined in the European Qualifications Framework and issued in our country, the Regulation is also the first national legislation prepared for the quality assurance of qualifications.
According to the Regulation, the quality assurance criteria to be satisfied by the qualifications to be included in TQF are as follows:
• A qualification form is being created and approved.
• A valid and reliable measurement and evaluation process is implemented.
• Certification processes are managed in a transparent and objective manner.
• Processes for qualifications are subject to self-assessment and external evaluation.
• Units, teams or institutions carrying out the external evaluation are subject to a regular review.
• Improvement activities are carried out in the light of the self-assessment and external evaluation findings.
• Participation of stakeholders in the processes for qualifications is ensured.
• Processes for qualifications are carried out in line with clear and measurable objectives, criteria and guidelines.
• Sufficient and suitable resource allocation is ensured for all processes.
• Feedback mechanisms are developed and implemented.
• Electronic accessibility is ensured for outcomes of all processes.
It is required that the quality assurance certificate and guidelines are prepared by the responsible institutions within one year as of the publication date of the Regulation and that the responsible institutions establish their systems to ensure the quality assurance and to run such systems through education institutions and certification bodies within two years as of the said date.
In accordance with the respective provisions of the Regulation, the activities are carried out in coordination with the Strategy Development Department and the qualification forms under the responsibility of the Directorate General for Vocational and Technical Education are prepared and included in the Turkey Qualifications Database.
The criteria to ensure the quality assurance of qualifications are defined and updated where necessary by the Vocational Qualification Institution (MYK). While defining and updating the quality assurance criteria, MYK cooperates with the responsible institutions . The following are responsible for taking necessary measures to establish, operate, monitor and improve the system to ensure the quality assurance of qualifications according to the criteria determined:
• The Ministry of National Education for the education and training qualifications under the authority and responsibility of the Ministry of National Education;
• The Higher Education Council for the education and training qualifications under the authority and responsibility of the Higher Education Council;
• MYK for the qualifications under the Law numbered 5544;
• In addition, the organisations and institutions, the responsibility of which is stated in their respective legislation, for other qualifications.
The education institutions and certification bodies under the supervision and inspection of the responsible institutions carry out the measurement, evaluation and certification activities related to qualifications. Unlike the certification bodies, the education institutions carry out also the duty to provide education and training. The education institutions and certification bodies perform their activities in accordance with the quality assurance systems to be established by the responsible institutions.
The duties of the responsible institutions are as follows:
• To take necessary measures to establish, operate, monitor and improve the system to ensure the quality assurance of qualifications;
• To prepare the quality assurance document defining the quality assurance system and including the mandatory guidelines;
• To ensure that the qualification forms are prepared, approved and updated where necessary;
• To determined units, teams or institutions to realize the external evaluation;
• To ensure that the activities of units, teams or institutions to realize the external evaluation are regularly reviewed;
• To ensure or confirm that the education institutions and certification bodies have the necessary, suitable and sufficient resources to run the quality assurance systems;
• To take necessary measures to establish feedback mechanisms, to make activity results accessible and to ensure the participation of stakeholders, and to ensure that the education institutions and certification bodies implement such measures;
• To prepare reports about the quality assurance practices for the qualifications under its responsibility and to submit such reports to the Board.
The duties of the education institutions and certification bodies are as follows:
• To carry out its activities in accordance with the quality assurance system to be established by the responsible institution, and to ensure that all employees in charge of the processes for qualifications perform their works and operations in compliance with the quality assurance certificates, guidelines and implementation methods;
• To perform the self-assessment activities in cooperation with the personnel having a command of the processes and with an objective and impartial method;
• To ensure that the external evaluation activities are carried out in accordance with the guidelines published by the responsible institution;
• To use the resources required to operate the quality assurance systems in accordance with their intended use;
• To implement the measures taken by the responsible institution to establish feedback mechanisms, to make activity results accessible and to ensure the participation of stakeholders;
• To provide the responsible institution with the necessary information and documents to prepare reports about the quality assurance practices for qualifications.
The vocational and technical education area programmes are designed with the purpose of preparing individuals for the business life and are based on the labour market needs and the business analysis approach. In this approach, professions are analysed and profession profiles are defined, and the jobs/duties and operations required to be performed by profession members are determined. While the learning programme sets forth via courses and modules the building of the knowledge, skills, attitudes and manners required to be possessed in order to perform the works and operations in question, on the one side, the education activities are prepared in such a way to prepare individual for the business life in accordance with this framework, on the other side.
To that end, a modular programme approach, which is based on job and profession analysis, has been adopted in vocational and technical education. The programme development process consists of the analysis, design and development stages, to realise these stages, a commission was established with the labour market representatives, field teachers, and expert academics. Representatives from the public and private sectors and the non-governmental organisations participate in the commission studies.
The vocational and technical education programmes are developed on a large scale and in such a way to provide specialization in the respective field, by taking into consideration the international classifications such as ISCED and FOET in order to ensure national and international comparability.
EQF, TQF, ISCED, ISCO, NOS, UY, other occupation analyses carried out, social stakeholders and professional associations reports, researches conducted by universities and other organisations and institutions, practice evaluation reports sent by schools, and similar documents are the reference documents.
Literacy is defined as creating the lifelong learning awareness in individuals, improving this awareness, and ensuring that individuals gain new skills for a more effective learning. In traditional meaning, literacy is defined as "the ability to read, write and understand numerical expressions", however, with the developing technologies, there are many different literacy areas defined in the literature such as the information literacy, computer literacy, economic literacy, technology literacy, etc. Accordingly, the Directorate General for Lifelong Learning conducted studies to organize awareness and skill training programmes related to the literacy areas included in the skills of the 21st century, and such studies have taken their final form. The media, health, finance, ecology and belief literacy course programmes have been prepared within the framework of the general programmes under the title of literacy and they will be put into practice after receiving opinions of various associations, foundations, organisations and institutions.
Our education system aims to train individuals with the character having the knowledge, skills and behaviours integrated in qualifications. The qualifications that are the range of skills to be needed by students in their personal, social, academic and business lives both at national and international levels are defined in the Turkey Qualifications Framework (TQF). According to the Procedures and Principles on Vocational and Technical Secondary Education Programmes and Materials Development (2016), these qualifications included in TQF are integrated in the programmes.
• Communication in the mother tongue
• Communication in foreign languages
• Mathematical competence and basic competences in science/technology
• Digital competence
• Social and civic competences
• Taking initiative and entrepreneurship
• Cultural awareness and expression
According the PISA 2015 survey with the target audience of the students of the age group 15 who are enrolled in the formal education at the level of seventh class and above under the exams made internationally, the successes of school types were compared.
According the reading skills, science and mathematics literacy results of the exam, the level of success of the Vocational and Technical Anatolian High Schools and the Multi-programme Anatolian High Schools were found to be below the desired levels, and improvement efforts are given priority in this regard.
The Regulation to Ensure the Quality Assurance of Qualifications to Be Included in TQF (Quality Assurance Regulation, in short) was prepared by TQF Board and took its final form with the opinions and suggestions of the organisations and institutions represented at TQF Board. Approved with the Resolution dated 25 January 2018 and numbered 2018/01 of TQF Coordination Board at which the Ministry of National Education, the Higher Education Council and the Vocational Qualification Institute were represented, the Regulation entered into force following its publication on the Official Gazette dated 25 March 2018 and numbered 30371.
With the full and active implementation of the Quality Assurance Regulation, the national and international confidence in the quality of qualifications that is the most important outcome of the education and training system will be maximised.
All administration, coordination, quality evaluation etc. in vocational training and internship applications in enterprises are carried out by MoNE, and representatives of the sector (professional organisations, etc.) play an active role in this process, but do not yet play an effective role as desired. The prominent issues to be focused on are to create a much flexible structure in terms of vocational training and internship periods at enterprises according to the needs of occupations, to increase the quality of training given at the workplace, to improve the learning processes at the workplace.
It is seen as very important that the Vocational Education Board and the Provincial Employment and Vocational Education Boards design supply and demand balance policies by considering the medium and long-term labour force requirements of the economy and society. The efforts for preparing a vocational education and training roadmap by determining the occupations that the labour force market will need in the medium and long-term through social partners, revising the curriculum accordingly, and ensuring the continuity of these processes has been continuing increasingly.
The cooperation between the institutions and organisations responsible for vocational and technical education must be improved and expanded. Although there are various efforts on vocational and technical education, difficulties are encountered in producing a common policy. In the fields related to vocational and technical education, the need for a volunteering specialist working group clearly manifests itself in order to assist in the realisation of strategies and policies in line with the national and international needs and targets, and to eliminate the lack of coordination and cooperation.
Vocational and technical education is carried out under the responsibility of MoNE in the scope of non-formal and formal education, and the Higher Education Board in the scope of higher education. With the Decree Law No. 652 on the Organisation and Duties of the Ministry of National Education, which entered into force in 2011, the formal education part of vocational and technical education is carried out by the Directorate General of Vocational and Technical Education and the non-formal education is carried out by the Directorate General of Lifelong Learning.
The Vocational Education Board (VEB) has been established with the Vocational Education Law Nr. 3308 for the purpose of taking decisions on the planning, development and evaluation of vocational and technical education to be conducted in all types of formal, non-formal and apprenticeship education, vocational and technical education schools and institutions, and enterprises where vocational and technical education programmes are applied, and submitting an opinion to the Ministry. VEB consists of representatives of relevant ministries, professional organisations and trade unions under the presidency of MoNE Deputy Minister. The decisions of this Board, which convenes once a year, are published in the Official Gazette and come into force and are carried out by the Ministry of National Education and related professional organisations.
In 2008, provincial employment board and provincial vocational education board were merged to form the provincial employment and vocational education boards (PEVEB) were established. PEVEB fulfils, at the local level, duties such as the establishment of employment and vocational education policies, measures to protect employment, development and prevention of unemployment, and determination of active labour force programs to be implemented. Requests for opening and closing the fields and branches in schools are evaluated by PEVEB's and submitted to MoNE for its opinion.
The fact that the current vocational and technical education system has a centralised structure, the number of students, the number of schools, the number of fields and branches, economic developments and technological changes, give rise to challenges in the system from time to time. It is a known that there is a very different stakeholder distribution in the employment market due to the complexity and diversity of vocational education. This requires stakeholders to be actively involved in both education and employment processes.
Within the scope of establishing an effective and efficient governance system in vocational and technical education;
• A volunteering vocational and technical education (VET) experts ‘platforms have been established.
• VET school types have been reduced; a school and institution management model has been developed and implemented.
Ongoing studies are as follows:
• Ensuring effective and efficient functioning of Vocational Education Board and Provincial Employment and Vocational Education Boards,
• Restructuring of Higher Vocational Schools in accordance with the structure and characteristics of vocational and technical education,
• Improving human resource qualifications of VET schools and institutions
The parties to the Vocational Education Law No. 3308 which laid the foundations of vocational education system in our country, and formed the legal infrastructure are the state, employees’ and employers’ institutions. Vocational education is an education model that can be realised with the close cooperation and coordination of this tripartite structure.
For this reason, it is aimed to establish a structure in vocational and technical education where stakeholders who have the qualifications to accommodate the labour needs of the sector and are able to adapt to developing technology effectively participate in planning and decision-making processes.
Stakeholders of Vocational and Technical Education;
• Higher Education Authority
• Vocational Qualification Institute
• Directorate General of Secondary Education
• Directorate-General of Life-Long Learning
• Directorate General of Vocational and Technical Education
• Directorate General of Basic Education
• Directorate General of Special Education and Guidance Services
• Presidency of Turkish Education Board
• Directorate General of European Union and Foreign Relations
• Business World, Related Public Institutions, Social Stakeholders, and NGOs
• International Organisations and Parties.
MoNE is responsible for the education system, the general directorates affiliated with MoNE, and their units are responsible for different aspects of education such as basic education, secondary education, vocational education, special education, guidance and counseling, and compliance with the policy. Provincial and District Education Directorates found in 81 provinces of Turkey support implementation of education policy. Presidency of Turkish Education Board determines the curriculum, plans and objectives and approves the textbooks. The Strategy Development Department serves as the advisory unit and coordinates the activities of the education strategies, policies and objectives. Guidance and Inspection Department serves as the auditing unit. Directorate General of Innovations and Education Technologies, and Directorate General of European Union and Foreign Relations coordinate participation in international assessment researches. The Vocational Education Board / Council takes decisions on the planning and development activities together with the representatives of relevant ministries, employees’ and employers’ unions and other key social partners. The Vocational Qualifications Institute ensures the compliance of vocational qualifications with vocational standards and there is a Vocational Education Board in each province. The Higher Education Council is an institution that regulates the entire higher education and guides the activities of the higher education institutions. The Measurement, Selection and Placement Centre (MSPC), in cooperation with the Ministry of National Education, is responsible for university entrance examinations and the placement of teachers. Consultations with external stakeholders include studies carried out with international organisations (such as the World Bank, the European Investment Bank, the United Nations, UNICEF and the European Union), the private sector, non-governmental organisations and teacher unions.
Despite the fact that there are various collaborations and social partnerships between MoNE Directorate General of Lifelong Learning and non-state actors, there are no studies on VET management and shaping VET policy. The obligations of the parties are clearly stated when signing the cooperation documents and partnerships for the implementation of VET, and the signed documents are published on the website of the Directorate General of Lifelong Learning.
The number of the institutions / organisations cooperated was 27 in 2017 and 29 in 2018. The number of cooperation protocols signed in 2018 is 22. The number of students who received scholarships and were employed under the protocols also increased in 2018 compared to the previous year. As of March 2019, a sum of 127 protocols are in place with 157 institutions in the scope of DG-VET and sector cooperation.
Vocational and technical education programmes are prepared by reference to national standards prepared by the sector, national qualifications and other national and international classification, standards, feedbacks, and legislation in line with the Turkey Qualifications Framework with the participation of representatives from the sector and non-governmental organisations and other related units. Sector verification studies are carried out for the draft education programmes prepared, and the sector's approval is sought.
All these stakeholders are specified as follows in the Procedures and Principles on Vocational and Technical Secondary Education Programmes and Development of Materials:
"Commissions composed of field teachers and academicians specialised in the field are formed to carry out the programme preparation and development activities. Institutions, such as the MYK, the Chambers of Commerce and Industry, employees’ unions, employers’ organisations, and other NGOs, and representatives of the sector are invited to participate in the activities of these commissions at certain intervals. The secretariat of the studies is carried out by the field teachers who act as representatives of the Ministry of National Education for MoNE programmes, and by field academicians in the case of Higher Education Board Programmes."
Education-sector consultative meetings are held at regular intervals in order to transfer the improvement works performed in vocational and technical education to the sector, to exchange views and to improve education-sector cooperation in vocational and technical education. Consultative meetings are attended by representatives of the chamber of industry and commerce of the city, representatives of the chambers of craftsmen and artisans, representatives of organised industrial zones, schools and provincial/district education directors, academicians, teachers, trade unions, NGOs and other stakeholders. Until today, meetings were held with a total of 7,600 people in 40 provinces.
Tradesmen and Artisans Confederation of Turkey (TESK), a party to vocational education, carries out efforts to increase the quality of apprenticeship training in the scope of Law on Vocational Education No. 3308, the abolished Law No. 507 on Professional Organisations of Tradesmen and Artisans, and the current Law No. 6362 on Professional Organisations of Tradesmen and Artisans, and conducts training, exams and certification in branches professions which are not covered by the scope of application of apprenticeship training. TESK and several sub-units affiliated with TESK provide services in raising qualified manpower through the vocational training and technology centres they have established and they operate.
In this context, it has been stipulated that the provisions of articles 71 and 74 of the Law on Professional Organisations of Tradesmen and Artisans, No. 5362, and the provisions of the said law concerning the vocational education and those provisions of the Vocational Education Law No. 3308, concerning practical vocational education by tradesmen and artisans will be carried out in collaboration with the Ministry of National Education and the Confederation, the vocational trainings of tradesmen and artisans will be planned jointly by professional organisations of tradesmen and artisans and the Ministry of National Education, and will be supervised jointly, and also, in line with the purposes set out in the Vocational Education Law No. 3308, the practical training of apprentices and journeymen working with tradesmen and artisans is the primary duty of tradesmen and artisans organisations at each level, and accordingly, a vocational education fund will be formed within the Confederation and every tradesmen and artisans organisation will make a training fund by allocating 5 percent of its annual gross income, and the fund so allocated will be deposited to the Vocational Education Fund account created within the Confederation every year.
Directorate General of Lifelong Learning states that courses may be organised in cooperation with other official and private institutions / organisations and non-governmental organisations by means of contributing to lifelong learning activities with a view to improving the knowledge, skills and competences of individuals through a personal, social and employment-oriented approach, improving quality and efficiency, preventing repetition of services, and combining resources.
In this framework, there is a strong cooperation between various stakeholders such as NGOs, local authorities, social partners, international organisations, international financial institutions and bilateral organisations, universities, trade unions, professional organisations, employers’ associations, SMEs and the private sector, and the aim is to improve this cooperation further.
At this point, it is possible to describe a recent protocol in the context of a good example of state - private sector - university cooperation. The said protocol was signed between MoNE- the Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey (TOBB) and TOBB Economics and Technology University in 2019 for 10 years, and allows a special cooperation in the determination of the management structure of 81 vocational and technical Anatolian High Schools in 81 provinces, and the curriculum to be applied in such schools. Within the scope of the protocol, it is aimed to facilitate the adaptation of the students to digital transformation, and to create environments where they can learn by developing robotic literacy and entrepreneurship, critical, designative, and creative thinking skills by establishing R & D, Design and Skills workshops in schools. In these schools where successful students will have access to scholarships, it will be possible to increase the interest of the students in their departments with the support of the private sector and the Chambers and Commodity Exchanges that are members of TOBB in the provinces, to help them approach their professions from a holistic perspective and find employment in a short time after graduation, and be given priority to their employment in TOBB member companies.
In the Presidential Government System, the budget proposal is prepared by the Presidency. Therefore, the MoNE's 2019 budget was prepared by the Presidency and presented to the Turkish Grand National Assembly's Planning and Budget Commission by the Minister of Treasury and Finance. The budget allocated to the MoNE was increased by 23 percent compared to 2018 and was determined as TL 113.8 billion.
Aside from statutory criteria for the distribution of the share allocated to vocational and technical education from the general budget to schools and institutions, criteria such as number of students, number of teachers, the indoor area of the school, geographical region, area and branch are also taken into account. The treasury contribution collected from the working capital enterprises of vocational and technical education schools and institutions has been reduced from 15 percent to 1 percent effective from December 2018. Therefore, vocational and technical education schools and institutions will be to produce higher working capital, and students will be much more involved in the production activities.
Vocational and technical education requires financially significant investments due to on-the-job training, environment and material needs. The total budget allocated for vocational education was increased by 100% from TL 6.32 billion to TL 12.5 billion in the 2013 - 2018 period. In this way, it has become possible to renew the educational environments substantially. As the increase in budget was higher than the increase in the number of students, the vocational and technical education budget per student, which was TL 3,916 TL in 2013, reached to TL 7,609 in 2018. The significant increases in the budget allocated to vocational education both total and per-student are consistent with the increase in the importance attached to vocational education in the recent years.
The fact that the services and products produced during the vocational and technical education process are placed on the market and generate income to the school is important for the scholarship and support activities for students. It has been determined that currently there are no studies on working capital in many vocational and technical secondary education institutions and no income is generated in many professional fields. In this context, incentive policies have been initiated to encourage working capital activities in vocational education institutions and to increase the income generated. The existence of working capital activities and revenue generation are identified as important elements within the scope of Corporate External Quality Assessment. Moreover, within the scope of the 2023 Education Vision, it has been decided to reduce the treasury cuts in the working capital revenues of vocational and technical education institutions. This development is important for ensuring the return of the working capital revenues to the students at higher rates.
Vocational and technical education is substantially funded by the state. In addition, there are resources which are provided outside the central government budget for vocational and technical education. These are:
• Income provided by Law No. 3308,
• Shares transferred from international projects to education,
• Income derived from donations and NGOs,
• Revenues from working capital enterprises in schools.
The total state expenditure on vocational secondary education (sum of central and local) is TL 20.3 billion and its share in GDP is 0.65% according to TURKSTAT Educational Expenditure Data for year 2017. With the addition of the expenditure of the private sector (with the addition of households, private-legal entities international resources, and the subtraction of transfers made by the state and private sector to the households) to the state expenditures, the total expenditure on vocational secondary education in Turkey increased by 205 percent in 2017 compared to 2011, reaching TL 24 billion, approximately.. Considering only the expenditures of DG-VET, it is understood that the expenditure on vocational education is TL 11.3 billion.
The European Union provides financial and technical support to Turkey's political and economic reforms via Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance - IPA. IPA funds have the role of establishing an operational partnership between the EU and EU candidate and potential candidate countries to promote EU access requirements for various countries. The education sector is among the sectors that require special efforts to achieve EU standards, mainly by adapting national policies on improving educational outcomes and skills levels.
Within the scope of Erasmus + Programme, Mobility and Strategic Partnerships activities are supported within the scope of vocational training in our country. The applications submitted by institutions for these activities are evaluated, and grant support is given to the institutions that are considered successful. In 2018, a grant of EUR 18.6 million was allocated to 518 institutions in the scope of Vocational Education Learners and Personnel Mobility, and 10,205 people are expected to work in EU countries in order to gain professional experience. Again, in 2018, EUR 3.1 million were allocated to 22 institutions within the scope of the Vocational Education Strategic Partnerships activities. In this context, not only vocational schools, but also universities, professional chambers, NGOs and companies that will carry out vocational education studies will share their experiences in vocational education with their partners in EU countries and will be able to develop innovative products in the field of vocational education.
The fact that the services and products produced during the vocational and technical education process are placed on the market and generate income to the school is important for the scholarship and support activities for students. In 774 of Vocational and Technical Anatolian High Schools and Vocational Education Centres, production is performed and services rendered within the scope of working capital. The activities carried out within this scope give the students the opportunity to apply output-oriented practical training and play an important role in acquiring the skills that the sector requires. In 2017, TL 217,197,959 of income was generated in Vocational and Technical Anatolian High Schools and Vocational Training Centres. The provinces with the largest share in total working capital revenue in 2017 are Ankara, Istanbul and Antalya, respectively. Products or services amounting to approximately TL 25 million, TL 17 million, and TL 13 million were generated in Ankara, Istanbul, and Antalya, respectively.
For the diversification of VET financing, government contribution is provided to private vocational high schools and enterprises.
In the 2017-2018 School Year, state incentives are given in 21 fields to private vocational high schools opened in Organised Industrial Zones (OIZ). Public incentives have also been initiated in 27 fields for private vocational high schools opened outside OIZ. Currently, 69 private Vocational and Technical Anatolian High Schools benefit from incentives and 38,833 students attend these schools.
The state pays a support to employers equal to a certain part of the minimum wage payable to students by enterprises that are obliged to conduct skills training and internship. In the scope of the state incentives for skills training at enterprises, state support was sent to 182,939 students on a monthly basis. From February 2017, the date at which the application started, to June 2018, the state incentive was paid to enterprises for 3,109,971 students.
In addition, the institutions that are entitled to use the Erasmus + grant are encouraged to mobilise their own resources and other capabilities in their regions for language, culture and pedagogical preparation for participants who will benefit from their projects
The current expenditure covers the payments to personnel (including social security), outright payments for financing the purchases of goods and services whose cost does not exceed the minimum value determined budget laws and/or whose lifetime is one year or less than one year, and interest costs, and purchase of current goods and services.
The capital expenditure includes capital expenditures, fixed capital acquisitions, payments for the acquisition of real estates or tangible assets, or outright payments made for such purposes.
In 2017, current expenditures account for 89 percent of total expenditures by state educational institutions, and capital expenditures account for 11 percent of total expenditures. 87% of current expenditure is personnel expenditure.
The data obtained by categorizing expenditures made only by DG-VET are shown in the table below.
In order to maximize the impact of IPA-II funds on economic, social and regional development, a thematic and geographical concentration approach has been adopted in the allocation of funds. For that reason, the Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Services, Department of the European Union and the Financial Aid allocates a certain part of the funds to prioritised 12 statistical regions, which remain below 75 percent of Turkey's mean gross added value per capita. Taking into account the consistency and complementarity between the priorities of the regional plans and taking into account the absorption capacities of the regions, priority was given to the following four regions among the 12 regions for concentration in terms of allocation of funds:
• TRB1 (Malatya, Elazığ, Bingöl, Tunceli)
• TRB2 (Van, Mus, Bitlis, Hakkari)
• TRC2 (Şanlıurfa, Diyarbakır)
• TRC3 (Mardin, Batman, Sirnak, Siirt)
For the reasons mentioned above, the four priority regions will receive 15 percent of the general allowance of the Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Services Department of European Union and Financial Aid, while 85 percent of the funds will be used for the whole country.
By enabling an effective and sustainable finance management in Vocational and Technical Education (VET), it is aimed to improve the educational environments of schools and institutions. In this context, school based budgeting has been adopted in VET, and trainings on the effective, efficient use of appropriations, and the procurement legislation have been delivered to VET school / institution managers in the scope of increasing and activating resources other than general budget for VET financing.
With a view to improving encouragement mechanisms to open private VET schools and institutions, opening of sector-oriented private Vocational and Technical Secondary Education Institutions are encouraged inside and outside OIZ taking into account the sectoral intensity mainly in OIZs. For each student attending vocational and technical education schools opened in OIZs, an education and training support is made at such amount determined jointly by the MoNE, Treasury and the Ministry of Finance for each school year from the allowance set aside for such purpose in MoNE budget, starting from the 2012-2013 school year, provided, however, such support shall not exceed one and a half times the cost the state incurs for one student attending a formal school, taking into account the type of school. With the decision of the Council of Ministers, it has been decided to provide education and training support for students attending vocational and technical education schools which are opened outside the OIZs, and incentives have been started to be given in 27 occupational areas. (Law on Private Education Institutions (5580) Article 12)
In order to improve the workshop environments of VET schools and institutions, workshop models compatible with the sector have been formed by examining vocational training workshop models (equipment, machinery-equipment, tools) in developed countries. Moreover, a database has been developed to demonstrate the current situation of the equipment infrastructure in VET schools/institutions. For the determination of workshop standards of private VET schools and institutions, the lists of standard workshop and equipment of 26 fields and the 117 branches within such fields have been updated. In addition to the workshop and laboratory standards of 26 fields, further development efforts are ongoing for 1 filed (Maritime).